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Table of Contents
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

Form 10-Q
(Mark One)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended September 30, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For transition period from to
Commission File Number: 001-39186
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or Other Jurisdiction of Incorporation or Organization)
81-2974255
(I.R.S. Employer Identification Number)
2945 Townsgate Road Suite 110
Westlake Village, California
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
91361
(Zip Code)
(805) 418-5006
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)

Not Applicable
(Former name, former address and former fiscal year, if changed since last report)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading SymbolName of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.0001 ARQTThe Nasdaq Global Select Market

Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the Registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the Registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer”, “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filerSmaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act): Yes No
The number of shares of the registrant’s Common Stock outstanding as of October 31, 2020 was 43,634,480.

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INDEX
Page



Table of Contents
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
Item 1. Financial Statements
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Condensed Balance Sheets
(In thousands, except share and par value)
September 30,December 31,
20202019
(unaudited)
ASSETS
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$45,707 $63,336 
Marketable securities144,005 37,929 
Prepaid expenses and other current assets4,409 5,209 
Total current assets194,121 106,474 
Property, plant, and equipment, net322 227 
Operating lease right-of-use asset3,492 264 
Other assets78 47 
Total assets$198,013 $107,012 
LIABILITIES, CONVERTIBLE PREFERRED STOCK AND STOCKHOLDERS’ EQUITY (DEFICIT)
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$5,039 $1,405 
Accrued liabilities16,083 3,654 
Operating lease liability32 178 
Total current liabilities21,154 5,237 
Operating lease liability, noncurrent3,675 129 
Other long-term liabilities113 184 
Total liabilities24,942 5,550 
Commitments and contingencies (Note 6)
Convertible preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; no shares and 48,787,898 shares authorized at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively; no shares and 24,385,388 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
 166,491 
Stockholders’ equity (deficit):
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value; 10,000,000 and no shares authorized at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively; no shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019;
  
Common stock, $0.0001 par value; 300,000,000 and 65,820,000 shares authorized at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively; 38,218,195 and 2,879,763 shares issued at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively; 37,798,889 and 2,120,853 shares outstanding at September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively
4  
Additional paid-in capital340,964 1,244 
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss)4 (1)
Accumulated deficit(167,901)(66,272)
Total stockholders’ equity (deficit)173,071 (65,029)
Total liabilities, convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit)$198,013 $107,012 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Condensed Statements of Operations and Comprehensive Loss
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
(unaudited)
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2020201920202019
Operating expenses:
Research and development
$32,743 $12,348 $87,934 $25,765 
General and administrative
5,560 2,300 14,647 4,373 
Total operating expenses
38,303 14,648 102,581 30,138 
Loss from operations
(38,303)(14,648)(102,581)(30,138)
Other income, net99 168 952 710 
Net loss
$(38,204)$(14,480)$(101,629)$(29,428)
Other comprehensive income (loss):
Unrealized gain (loss) on marketable securities4 (3)5  
Comprehensive loss$(38,200)$(14,483)$(101,624)$(29,428)
Per share information:
Net loss per share, basic and diluted
$(1.01)$(7.56)$(3.06)$(16.60)
Weighted-average shares used in computing net loss per share, basic and diluted37,748,454 1,915,601 33,214,005 1,773,025 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Condensed Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance—December 31, 201816,262,425 $72,252 1,557,900 $ $289 $ $(24,276)$(23,987)
Vesting of founder shares subject to repurchase— — 68,931 — — — — — 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 65,868 — 29 — — 29 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 76 — — 76 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — 1 — 1 
Net Loss— — — — — — (6,658)(6,658)
Balance—March 31, 201916,262,425 $72,252 1,692,699 $ $394 $1 $(30,934)$(30,539)
Vesting of founder shares subject to repurchase— — 68,931 — — — — — 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 65,868 — 29 — — 29 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 139 — — 139 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — 2 — 2 
Net Loss— — — — — — (8,290)(8,290)
Balance—June 30, 201916,262,425 $72,252 1,827,498 $ $562 $3 $(39,224)$(38,659)
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of stock options — — 15,885 9 9 
Vesting of founder shares subject to repurchase— — 68,932 — — — — — 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 65,869 — 29 — — 29 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 154 — — 154 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — (3)— (3)
Net Loss— — — — — — (14,480)(14,480)
Balance—September 30, 201916,262,425 $72,252 1,978,184 $ $754 $ $(53,704)$(52,950)
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Condensed Statements of Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
(In thousands, except share data)
(unaudited)
Convertible
Preferred Stock
Common StockAdditional
Paid-In
Capital
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)Accumulated
Deficit
Total Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
SharesAmountSharesAmount
Balance—December 31, 201924,385,388 $166,491 2,120,853 $ $1,244 $(1)$(66,272)$(65,029)
Conversion of preferred stock into common stock upon initial public offering(24,385,388)(166,491)24,385,388 2 166,489 — — 166,491 
Issuance of shares of common stock, net of issuance costs of $16.0 million
— — 10,781,250 1 167,240 — — 167,241 
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of stock options— — 51,147 — 152 — — 152 
Vesting of founder shares subject to repurchase— — 68,931 — — — — — 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 64,428 — 30 — — 30 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 990 — — 990 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — 20 — 20 
Net Loss— — — — — — (28,013)(28,013)
Balance—March 31, 2020 $ 37,471,997 $3 $336,145 $19 $(94,285)$241,882 
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of stock options— — 14,875 — 25 — — 25 
Vesting of founder shares subject to repurchase— — 68,932 — — — — — 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 114,392 — 111 — — 111 
Shares issued pursuant to the employee stock purchase plan— — 19,862 — 287 — — 287 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 2,049 — — 2,049 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — (19)— (19)
Net Loss— — — — — — (35,412)(35,412)
Balance—June 30, 2020 $ 37,690,058 $3 $338,617 $ $(129,697)$208,923 
Issuance of common stock upon the exercise of stock options— — 28,908 — 34 — — 34 
Lapse of repurchase rights related to common stock issued pursuant to early exercises— — 79,923 1 52 — — 53 
Stock-based compensation expense— — — — 2,261 — — 2,261 
Unrealized gain on short term investments— — — — — 4 — 4 
Net Loss— — — — — — (38,204)(38,204)
Balance—September 30, 2020 $ 37,798,889 $4 $340,964 $4 $(167,901)$173,071 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Condensed Statements of Cash Flows
(In thousands)
(unaudited)
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
CASH FLOWS FROM OPERATING ACTIVITIES:
Net loss$(101,629)$(29,428)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities:
Depreciation87 44 
Non-cash lease expense202 91 
Net amortization/accretion on marketable securities(307)(357)
Stock-based compensation5,300 369 
Changes in operating assets and liabilities:
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(369)(1,408)
Other assets (47)
Accounts payable3,682 889 
Accrued liabilities12,602 3,851 
Operating lease liabilities(30)(43)
Net cash used in operating activities(80,462)(26,039)
CASH FLOWS FROM INVESTING ACTIVITIES:
Purchases of marketable securities(179,364)(22,897)
Proceeds from maturities of marketable securities73,600 32,800 
Purchases of property and equipment(168)(229)
Net cash (used in) provided by investing activities(105,932)9,674 
CASH FLOWS FROM FINANCING ACTIVITIES:
Proceeds from issuance of common stock upon exercise of stock options307 256 
Proceeds from initial public offering, net of issuance costs168,642  
Proceeds from issuance of common stock for ESPP purchase287  
Payment of financing costs(471)(108)
Net cash provided by financing activities168,765 148 
Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents(17,629)(16,217)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period63,336 39,394 
Cash and cash equivalents at end of period$45,707 $23,177 
SUPPLEMENTAL DISCLOSURES OF NON-CASH INVESTING AND FINANCING INFORMATION:
Right-of-use asset obtained in exchange for lease liability$3,645 $391 
Reduction in right-of-use asset upon reassessment of lease term$139 $ 
Deferred financing costs included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$138 $920 
The accompanying notes are an integral part of these unaudited condensed financial statements.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Unaudited Condensed Financial Statements

1. Organization and Description of Business
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., or the Company, is a late-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing treatments for dermatological diseases with high unmet medical needs. The Company’s current portfolio is comprised of topical treatments with significant promise in addressing immune-mediated dermatological diseases and conditions, or immuno-dermatology. The Company’s strategy is to advance treatments that leverage validated biological targets in dermatology in order to deliver clinical profiles that address major shortcomings of existing therapies in its targeted indications. The Company believes this strategy uniquely positions it to rapidly advance its goal of bridging the treatment innovation gap in dermatology while maximizing its probability of technical success.
On January 17, 2020, the Company's board of directors approved a 1-for-2.0007 reverse stock split of the Company’s capital stock and the Company filed a certificate of amendment to its restated certificate of incorporation to effect the split. The par value and authorized shares of common stock and convertible preferred stock were not adjusted as a result of the reverse split. All share and per share information included in the accompanying financial statements has been adjusted to reflect this reverse stock split.
Initial Public Offering and Follow-On Financing
On February 4, 2020, the Company closed an initial public offering (IPO) issuing and selling 10,781,250 shares of common stock at a public offering price of $17.00 per share, including 1,406,250 shares sold pursuant to the underwriters’ full exercise of their option to purchase additional shares. The aggregate net proceeds received by the Company from the offering were approximately $167.2 million, after deducting underwriting discounts, commissions and offering related transaction costs. Upon the closing of the IPO, all of the outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock automatically converted into shares of common stock. Subsequent to the closing of the IPO, there were no shares of convertible preferred stock outstanding.
On October 6, 2020, the Company sold 4,000,000 shares of common stock in a follow-on public offering along with 1,400,000 shares of common stock in a private placement, or the follow-on financing, both at a price of $25 per share, receiving $128.4 million in net proceeds after deducting the underwriting discounts, commissions and offering related transaction costs. See Note 10 for additional information. The financial statements as of September 30, 2020, including share and per share amounts, do not incorporate the effects of this follow-on financing.

Liquidity
The Company has incurred significant losses and negative cash flows from operations since its inception and had an accumulated deficit of $167.9 million and $66.3 million as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. The Company had cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities of $189.7 million and $101.3 million as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. In addition, on October 6, 2020, the Company received $128.4 million in net proceeds from our follow-on financing. Prior to selling common stock in its IPO and follow-on financing, the Company had historically financed its operations primarily through the sale of its convertible preferred stock. Management expects operating losses to continue for the foreseeable future.
The Company believes that its existing capital resources will be sufficient to meet the projected operating requirements for at least 12 months from the date of issuance of its financial statements. The Company will be required to raise additional capital to fund future operations. However, no assurance can be given as to whether additional needed financing will be available on terms acceptable to the Company, if at all. If sufficient funds on acceptable terms are not available when needed, the Company may be required to curtail planned activities to significantly reduce its operating expenses. Failure to manage discretionary spending or raise additional financing, as needed, may adversely impact the Company’s ability to achieve its intended business objectives and have an adverse effect on its results of operations and future prospects.
Coronavirus Outbreak
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared a pandemic related to the global novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. As of November 5, 2020, the Company’s operations have not been significantly
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Company is monitoring the impact COVID-19 may have on the clinical development of its product candidates, including potential delays or modifications to its ongoing and planned trials. However, the Company cannot at this time predict the specific extent, duration, or full impact that the COVID-19 outbreak will have on its financial condition and operations, including ongoing and planned clinical trials.
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The Company’s condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with United States generally accepted accounting principles (U.S. GAAP).
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported in the condensed financial statements and accompanying notes. On an ongoing basis, management evaluates such estimates and assumptions for continued reasonableness. In particular, management makes estimates with respect to accruals for research and development activities, fair value of common stock and convertible preferred stock (prior to the IPO completed in January 2020), stock-based compensation expense and income taxes. Appropriate adjustments, if any, to the estimates used are made prospectively based upon such periodic evaluation. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Segments
To date, the Company has viewed its financial information on an aggregate basis for the purposes of evaluating financial performance and allocating the Company’s resources. Accordingly, the Company has determined that it operates in one segment.
Unaudited Interim Condensed Financial Statements
The interim condensed balance sheet as of September 30, 2020, the interim condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss and the condensed changes in convertible preferred stock and stockholders’ equity (deficit) for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, and cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019 are unaudited. These unaudited interim condensed financial statements have been prepared on the same basis as the Company’s audited annual financial statements and, in the opinion of management, reflect all adjustments (consisting only of normal recurring adjustments) that are necessary for a fair statement of the Company’s financial information. The financial data and the other financial information disclosed in these notes to the condensed financial statements related to the three- and nine-month periods are also unaudited. The condensed results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 are not necessarily indicative of the results to be expected for the year ending December 31, 2020 or for any other future annual or interim period. The condensed balance sheet as of December 31, 2019 included herein was derived from the audited financial statements as of that date. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual financial statements prepared in accordance with U.S. GAAP have been condensed or omitted. Therefore, these unaudited interim condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements included in its Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with original maturities of three months or less from the purchase date to be cash equivalents. Cash equivalents consist primarily of money market funds, commercial paper, and U.S. Treasury securities.
Marketable Securities
Marketable securities consist of investment grade short to intermediate-term fixed income investments that have been classified as available-for-sale and are carried at estimated fair value as determined based upon quoted market prices or pricing models for similar securities. Management determines the appropriate classification of its
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
investments in fixed income securities at the time of purchase. Available-for-sale securities with original maturities beyond three months at the date of purchase are classified as current based on their availability for use in current operations.
Unrealized gains and losses are excluded from earnings and are reported as a component of other comprehensive loss. Realized gains and losses as well as credit losses, if any, on marketable securities are included in other income, net. The Company evaluated the underlying credit quality and credit ratings of the issuers during the period. To date, no such credit losses have occurred or have been recorded. The cost of investments sold is based on the specific-identification method. As of September 30, 2020, there were net unrealized gains on marketable securities of $4,000, and as of December 31, 2019, there were net unrealized losses on marketable securities of $1,000. Unrealized gains and losses on marketable securities are reported as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) on the balance sheets. There were no realized gains or losses on investments for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. Interest on marketable securities is included in other income, net.
Concentration of Credit Risk and Other Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Company to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities. The Company maintains deposits in federally insured financial institutions in excess of federally insured limits. The Company is exposed to credit risk in the event of a default by the financial institutions holding its cash to the extent recorded on the balance sheets.
Management believes the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions in which those deposits are held.
Fair Value Measurement
The Company’s financial instruments, in addition to those presented in Note 3, include cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities. The carrying amount of cash equivalents, accounts payable and accrued liabilities approximate their fair values due to their short maturities.
Assets and liabilities recorded at fair value on a recurring basis on the balance sheets are categorized based upon the level of judgment associated with the inputs used to measure their fair values. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or an exit price that would be paid to transfer a liability in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date. Valuation techniques used to measure fair value must maximize the use of observable inputs and minimize the use of unobservable inputs. The authoritative guidance on fair value measurements establishes a three-tier fair value hierarchy for disclosure of fair value measurements as follows:
Level 1—Observable inputs such as unadjusted, quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities at the measurement date;
Level 2—Inputs (other than quoted prices included in Level 1) are either directly or indirectly observable for the asset or liability. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active;
Level 3—Unobservable inputs that are supported by little or no market activity and that are significant to the fair value of the assets or liabilities.
Leases

The Company determines if an arrangement is or contains a lease at inception. Right-of-use (ROU) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and lease liabilities represent the Company’s obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. The classification of the Company’s leases as operating or finance leases along with the initial measurement and recognition of the associated ROU assets and lease liabilities is performed at the lease commencement date. The measurement of lease liabilities is based on the present value of future lease payments over the lease term. The Company uses its incremental borrowing rate, based on the information available at commencement date, to determine the present value of lease payments when
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
its leases do not provide an implicit rate. The Company uses the implicit rate when readily determinable. The ROU asset is based on the measurement of the lease liability, includes any lease payments made prior to or on lease commencement and excludes lease incentives and initial direct costs incurred, as applicable. Lease expense for the Company’s operating leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The Company considers a lease term to be the non-cancelable period that it has the right to use the underlying asset, including any periods where it is reasonably assured the Company will exercise the option to extend the contract. Periods covered by an option to extend are included in the lease term if the lessor controls the exercise of that option.

The Company’s lease agreements includes lease and non-lease components and the Company has elected to not separate such components for all classes of assets. Further, the Company elected the short-term lease exception policy, permitting it to not apply the recognition requirements of this standard to leases with terms of 12 months or less (short-term leases) for all classes of assets.
Preclinical and Clinical Accruals and Costs
The Company records accrued liabilities for estimated costs of research and development activities conducted by third-party service providers, which include the conduct of preclinical studies, clinical trials and contract manufacturing activities. These costs are a significant component of the Company’s research and development expenses. The Company accrues for these costs based on factors such as estimates of the work completed and in accordance with agreements established with its third-party service providers under the service agreements. The Company makes significant judgments and estimates in determining the accrued liabilities balance in each reporting period. As actual costs become known, the Company adjusts its accrued liabilities. For the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019, the Company has not experienced any material differences between accrued costs and actual costs incurred.
Convertible Preferred Stock
Prior to its IPO, the Company classified its outstanding convertible preferred stock outside of stockholders’ equity (deficit) on its balance sheets as the requirements of triggering a deemed liquidation event, as defined within its amended and restated certificate of incorporation, were not entirely within the Company’s control. In the event of such a deemed liquidation event, the proceeds from the event were to be distributed in accordance with the liquidation preferences, provided that the holders of convertible preferred stock had not converted their shares into common stock. The Company recorded the issuance of convertible preferred stock at the issuance price less related issuance costs. The Company did not adjust the carrying values of the convertible preferred stock to the liquidation preferences of such shares because of the uncertainty as to whether or when a deemed liquidation event may have occurred. In connection with the IPO in February 2020, the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 24,385,388 shares of common stock.
Research and Development
Research and development expenses include costs directly attributable to the conduct of research and development programs, including the cost of salaries, payroll taxes, employee benefits, license fees, stock-based compensation expense, materials, supplies, and the cost of services provided by outside contractors. All costs associated with research and development are expensed as incurred. Payments made prior to the receipt of goods or services to be used in research and development are capitalized until the goods are received or services are rendered. Such payments are evaluated for current or long-term classification based on when they will be realized.
The Company has entered into and may continue to enter into, license agreements to access and utilize certain technology. In each case, the Company evaluates if the license agreement results in the acquisition of an asset or a business. To date none of the Company’s license agreements have been considered an acquisition of a business. For asset acquisitions, the upfront payments to acquire such licenses, as well as any future milestone payments made before product approval that do not meet the definition of a derivative, are immediately recognized as research and development expense when paid or become payable, provided there is no alternative future use of the rights in other research and development projects.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
Stock-Based Compensation
The Company accounts for share-based payments at fair value. The fair value of stock options is measured using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. For share-based awards that vest subject to the satisfaction of a service requirement, the fair value measurement date for such awards is the date of grant and the expense is recognized on a straight-line basis, over the expected vesting period. For share-based awards that vest subject to a performance condition, the Company will recognize compensation cost for awards if and when the Company concludes that it is probable that the awards with a performance condition will be achieved on an accelerated attribution method. The Company accounts for forfeitures as they occur.
Income Taxes
Income taxes are accounted for using the asset and liability method. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the future tax consequences attributable to differences between the financial statement carrying amounts of existing assets and liabilities and their respective tax bases. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are measured using the enacted tax rates expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect on deferred tax assets and liabilities of a change in tax rates is recognized in income in the period of enactment. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred tax assets to an amount for which realization is more likely than not. Due to the Company’s historical operating performance and the recorded cumulative net losses in prior fiscal periods, the net deferred tax assets have been fully offset by a valuation allowance.

The Company recognizes the tax benefit from an uncertain tax position if it is more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the tax authorities, based on the merits of the position. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to the underpayment of income taxes as a component of income tax expense or benefit. To date, there have been no interest or penalties incurred in relation to the unrecognized tax benefits.

The United States Congress enacted the Families First Coronavirus Response Act (FFCR Act) on March 18, 2020 and the Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act (CARES Act) on March 27, 2020. The CARES Act is an emergency economic stimulus package that includes spending and tax breaks to strengthen the U.S. economy and fund a nationwide effort to curtail the effect of COVID-19. The FFCR Act and CARES Act include numerous tax-related provisions including modifications to the limitations on business interest expense and net operating losses (NOLs), certain refundable employee retention credits, as well as a payment delay of employer payroll taxes in 2020 after the date of enactment. On June 29, 2020, the California State Assembly Bill 85 (Trailer Bill) was enacted which suspends the use of California NOL deductions and certain tax credits, including research and development credits, for the 2020, 2021, and 2022 tax years. The Company does not expect the FFCR Act, CARES Act or Trailer Bill to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.

Variable Interest Entities
The Company reviews agreements it enters into with third-party entities, pursuant to which the Company may have a variable interest in the entity, in order to determine if the entity is a variable interest entity (VIE). If the entity is a VIE, the Company assesses whether or not it is the primary beneficiary of that entity. In determining whether the Company is the primary beneficiary of an entity, the Company applies a qualitative approach that determines whether it has both (i) the power to direct the economically significant activities of the entity and (ii) the obligation to absorb losses of, or the right to receive benefits from, the entity that could potentially be significant to that entity. If the Company determines it is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, it consolidates that VIE into the Company’s financial statements. The Company’s determination about whether it should consolidate such VIEs is made continuously as changes to existing relationships or future transactions may result in a consolidation or deconsolidation event. The Company currently does not consolidate any VIEs.

Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of shares of common stock outstanding for the period, without consideration for potential dilutive shares of common stock.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
Diluted net loss per share is computed by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. Since the Company was in a loss position for all periods presented, basic net loss per share is the same as diluted net loss per share since the effects of potentially dilutive securities are antidilutive. Shares of common stock subject to repurchase are excluded from the weighted-average shares.
Emerging Growth Company Status
The Company is an emerging growth company, as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act. Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can delay adopting new or revised accounting standards issued subsequent to the enactment of the JOBS Act until such time as those standards apply to private companies. The Company has elected to use this extended transition period for complying with new or revised accounting standards that have different effective dates for public and private companies until the earlier of the date that it is (i) no longer an emerging growth company or (ii) affirmatively and irrevocably opt out of the extended transition period provided in the JOBS Act. As a result, these financial statements may not be comparable to companies that comply with the new or revised accounting pronouncements as of public company effective dates.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In August 2018, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Accounting Standards Update (ASU) No. 2018-13, Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework—Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement, or ASU No. 2018-13, which removes, modifies, and adds various disclosure requirements on fair value measurements in Topic 820. ASU No. 2018-13 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods within those fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019. The amendments on changes in unrealized gains and losses, the range and weighted average of significant unobservable inputs used to develop Level 3 fair value measurements, and the narrative description of measurement uncertainty should be applied prospectively for only the most recent interim or annual period presented in the initial fiscal year of adoption. All other amendments should be applied retrospectively to all periods presented upon their effective date. The Company early adopted this standard as of January 1, 2020, and it did not have a material impact on its condensed financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, or ASU No. 2016-13. This update requires the measurement of all expected credit losses for financial assets held at the reporting date based on historical experience, current conditions, and reasonable and supportable forecasts. Financial institutions and other organizations now include forward-looking information in the determination of their credit loss estimates. Many of the previous loss estimation techniques are still permitted, although the inputs to those techniques have changed to reflect the full amount of expected credit losses. In addition, this update amends the accounting for credit losses on available-for-sale debt securities and purchased financial assets with credit deterioration. The Company early adopted this standard as of January 1, 2020, and it did not have a material impact on its condensed financial statements. There was no impact on the Company's condensed financial statements from credit losses for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Income Taxes (Topic 740), or ASU No. 2019-12, which amends the existing guidance relating to the accounting for income taxes. This standard is intended to simplify the accounting for income taxes by removing certain exceptions to the general principles of accounting for income taxes and to improve the consistent application of GAAP for other areas of accounting for income taxes by clarifying and amending existing guidance. The standard is effective for public business entities for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, and interim periods therein. Early adoption is permitted. An entity that elects early adoption in an interim period should reflect any adjustments as of the beginning of the annual period that includes that interim period. Additionally, an entity that elects early adoption should adopt all the amendments in the same period. The Company early adopted this guidance as of January 1, 2020, and it did not have a material impact on its condensed financial statements.
3. Fair Value Measurements
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
The following table sets forth the Company’s financial instruments that were measured at fair value on a recurring basis by level within the fair value hierarchy (in thousands):
September 30, 2020
Level 1Level 2Level 3Total
Assets:
Money market funds(1)
$45,707 $ $ $45,707 
Commercial paper
 69,480  69,480 
U.S. Treasury securities74,525  74,525 
Total assets$120,232 $69,480 $ $189,712 

December 31, 2019
Level 1
Level 2
Level 3
Total
Assets:
Money market funds(1)
$43,558$$$43,558 
Commercial paper44,689 44,689 
U.S. Treasury securities13,018 13,018 
Total assets
$56,576$44,689$ $101,265 
______________
(1)This balance includes cash requirements settled on a nightly basis.

Commercial paper, money market funds and U.S. Treasury securities are valued taking into consideration valuations obtained from third-party pricing services. The pricing services utilize industry standard valuation models, including both income and market-based approaches, for which all significant inputs are observable, either directly or indirectly, to estimate fair value. These inputs include reported trades of and broker/dealer quotes on the same or similar securities, issuer credit spreads; benchmark securities; prepayment/default projections based on historical data; and other observable inputs. There were no transfers between Levels 1, 2 or 3 for any of the periods presented.
The following table summarizes the estimated value of the Company’s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities and the gross unrealized holding gains and losses (in thousands):
September 30, 2020
Amortized
cost
Unrealized
gains
Unrealized
losses
Estimated
fair value
Cash and cash equivalents:
Money market funds(1)$45,707 $— $— $45,707 
Total cash and cash equivalents$45,707 $— $— $45,707 
Marketable securities:
Commercial paper$69,480   $69,480 
U.S. Treasury securities74,521 5 (1)74,525 
Total marketable securities$144,001 $5 $(1)$144,005 
______________
(1)This balance includes cash requirements settled on a nightly basis.


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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
December 31, 2019
Amortized
cost
Unrealized
gains
Unrealized
losses
Estimated
fair value
Cash and cash equivalents:
Commercial paper$11,780 $— $— $11,780 
Money market funds(1)43,558 — — 43,558 
U.S. Treasury securities7,998 — — 7,998 
Total cash and cash equivalents$63,336 $— $— $63,336 
Marketable securities:
Commercial paper$32,909 $ $ $32,909 
U.S. Treasury securities5,021  (1)5,020 
Total marketable securities$37,930 $ $(1)$37,929 
______________
(1)This balance includes cash requirements settled on a nightly basis.

There were no realized gains or losses on investments for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, unrealized losses on marketable securities were not material, and accordingly, no allowance for credit losses were recorded. As of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, all securities have a maturity of one year or less and all securities with gross unrealized losses have been in continuous loss position for less than twelve months.
4. Balance Sheet Components
Prepaid Expenses and Other Current Assets
Prepaid expenses and other current assets consist of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Prepaid clinical trial costs$1,619 $2,998 
Prepaid insurance939 62 
Deferred financing costs609 1,747 
Tax credits 472 145 
Other prepaid expenses and current assets770 257 
Total prepaid expenses and other current assets$4,409 $5,209 
Accrued Liabilities
Accrued liabilities consist of the following (in thousands):
September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Clinical trial accruals$12,590 $1,497 
Accrued compensation2,910 1,379 
Early exercise liability, current
198 225 
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities
385 553 
Total accrued liabilities
$16,083 $3,654 

5. License Agreements
AstraZeneca License Agreement
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
In July 2018, the Company entered into an exclusive license agreement, or the AstraZeneca License Agreement, with AstraZeneca AB (AstraZeneca), granting the Company a worldwide exclusive license, with the right to sublicense through multiple tiers, under certain AstraZeneca-controlled patent rights, know-how and regulatory documentation, to research, develop, manufacture, commercialize and otherwise exploit products containing roflumilast in topical forms, as well as delivery systems sold with or for the administration of roflumilast, or collectively, the AZ-Licensed Products, for all diagnostic, prophylactic and therapeutic uses for human dermatological indications, or the Dermatology Field. Under this agreement, the Company has sole responsibility for development, regulatory, and commercialization activities for the AZ-Licensed Products in the Dermatology Field, at its expense, and it shall use commercially reasonable efforts to develop, obtain and maintain regulatory approvals for, and commercialize the AZ-Licensed Products in the Dermatology Field in each of the United States, Italy, Spain, Germany, the United Kingdom, France, China, and Japan.
The Company paid AstraZeneca an upfront non-refundable cash payment of $1.0 million and issued 484,388 shares of Series B preferred stock, valued at $3.0 million on the date of the AstraZeneca License Agreement. The Company subsequently paid AstraZeneca the first milestone cash payment of $2.0 million upon the completion of a Phase 2b study of roflumilast cream in plaque psoriasis in August 2019 for the achievement of positive Phase 2 data for an AZ-Licensed Product, which was recorded in research and development expense. The Company has agreed to make additional cash payments to AstraZeneca of up to an aggregate of $12.5 million upon the achievement of specified regulatory approval milestones with respect to the AZ-Licensed Products and payments up to an additional aggregate amount of $15.0 million upon the achievement of certain aggregate worldwide net sales milestones. With respect to any AZ-Licensed Products the Company commercializes under the AstraZeneca License Agreement, it will pay AstraZeneca a low to high single-digit percentage royalty rate on the Company’s, its affiliates’ and its sublicensees’ net sales of such AZ-Licensed Products, subject to specified reductions, until, as determined on an AZ-Licensed Product-by-AZ-Licensed Product and country-by-country basis, the later of the date of the expiration of the last-to-expire AstraZeneca-licensed patent right containing a valid claim in such country and ten years from the first commercial sale of such AZ-Licensed Product in such country.
There were no payments made or due in connection with AZ-licensed Products for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020.
Hengrui Exclusive Option and License Agreement
In January 2018, the Company entered into an exclusive option and license agreement, or the Hengrui License Agreement, with Jiangsu Hengrui Medicine Co., Ltd. (Hengrui), whereby Hengrui granted the Company an exclusive option to obtain certain exclusive rights to research, develop and commercialize products containing the compound designated by Hengrui as SHR0302, a JAK 1 inhibitor, in topical formulations for the treatment of skin diseases, disorders, and conditions in the United States, Japan, Canada and the European Union (including for clarity the United Kingdom). The Company made a $0.4 million upfront non-refundable cash payment to Hengrui upon execution of the Hengrui Option and License Agreement, which was recorded as research and development expense. In December 2019, the Company exercised its exclusive option under the agreement, for which it made a $1.5 million cash payment, which was recorded in research and development expense, and also contemporaneously amended the agreement to expand the territory to additionally include Canada. In addition, the Company has agreed to make cash payments of up to an aggregate of $20.5 million upon achievement of specified clinical development and regulatory approval milestones with respect to the licensed products and cash payments of up to an additional aggregate of $200 million in sales-based milestones based on certain aggregate annual net sales volumes with respect to a licensed product.
With respect to any products the Company commercializes under the Hengrui License Agreement, it will pay tiered royalties to Hengrui on net sales of each licensed product by the Company, or its affiliates, or its sublicensees, ranging from mid single-digit to sub-teen percentage rates based on tiered annual net sales bands subject to specified reductions. The Company is obligated to pay royalties until the later of (1) expiration of the last valid claim of the licensed patent rights covering such licensed product in such country and (2) expiration of regulatory exclusivity for the relevant licensed product in the relevant country, on a licensed product-by-licensed product and country-by-country basis. Additionally, the Company is obligated to pay Hengrui a specified percentage, ranging from the low-thirties to the sub-teens, of certain non-royalty sublicensing income it receives from
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
sublicensees of its rights to the licensed products, such percentage decreasing as the development stage of the licensed products advance.
There were no payments made or due in connection with Hengrui for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.
Hawkeye Collaboration Agreement
In June 2019, the Company entered into a collaboration agreement, or Hawkeye Agreement, with Hawkeye Therapeutics, Inc. (Hawkeye), a related party with common ownership, for the development of one or more new applications of roflumilast. The Hawkeye Agreement grants Hawkeye an exclusive license to certain intellectual property developed under the agreement as it relates to the applications.
Contemporaneously with the execution of the Hawkeye Agreement, the Company entered into a stock purchase agreement, purchasing 995,000 shares of Hawkeye’s common stock at $0.0001 per share, representing 19.9% of the outstanding common stock of Hawkeye. In the event that Hawkeye issues shares of Series A preferred stock with proceeds over $5.0 million, Hawkeye is required to issue to the Company a number of fully-paid fully-vested shares of common stock determined by dividing (i) $2,000,000 by (ii) an amount equal to the cash price per share for Series A preferred stock. Other than the potential issuance of this common stock, there are no upfront payments, milestones or royalties pursuant to the Hawkeye Agreement. The Company determined that Hawkeye is a variable interest entity for which consolidation is not required as it is not the primary beneficiary.
6. Commitments and Contingencies
Operating Lease
The Company leases a facility in Westlake Village, California under an operating lease that commenced in February 2019. This lease was amended in April 2020 in order to relocate to a new expanded space comprising 22,643 square feet. At the time of the amendment, the Company reassessed the lease term of the original space in accordance with the option to terminate if leasing additional space in the same property. In connection with the reduction of the lease term for the original space, the Company reduced the ROU asset and lease liability balance by $139,000.
The Company recognized the ROU asset and lease liability for the new space on May 1, 2020, which was determined to be the lease commencement date. The lease payments begin upon the earlier of Company occupying the space or 15 days after tenant improvements are complete, and terminate 91 months thereafter, with a renewal option for a term of five years. The Company will have a one-time option to cancel the lease after month 67. The renewal and one-time cancellation options have not been considered in the determination of the ROU asset or lease liability as the Company did not consider it reasonably certain it would exercise these options.
The lease is subject to fixed rate escalation increases with an initial base rent of $76,000 per month and includes rent free periods aggregating approximately 1 year. As a result, the Company recognizes rent expense on a straight-line basis for the full amount of the commitment including the minimum rent increases over the life of the lease and the free rent period. The amended lease agreement provides for a tenant improvement allowance up to $1.25 million. It also requires the Company to have an available letter of credit of $1.5 million upon occupying the space, which is allowed to be reduced throughout the lease period as rent obligations are met.
In association with commencement of this new lease, the Company recorded lease liabilities and off-setting ROU assets of $3.6 million on its condensed balance sheet as of June 30, 2020. Since the Company is reasonably certain to incur costs equal to or exceeding the tenant improvement allowance of $1.25 million, the allowance is treated as a lease incentive that is payable to the Company at the lease commencement date. Accordingly, the tenant improvement allowance is included in the measurement of the consideration in the contract at commencement, and is recognized as a reduction in the ROU asset and lease liability. Upon completion, the tenant improvements will be reclassified from the lease liability to fixed assets and depreciated over the term of the lease.

The minimum annual rental payments of the Company’s operating lease liability as of September 30, 2020 are as follows (in thousands):
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
Amounts
2020 (October through December)$32 
2021172 
2022803 
2023967 
2024997 
Thereafter3,733 
Total minimum lease payments$6,704 
Less: Amounts representing interest(1,752)
Less: Tenant improvement allowance(1,245)
Present value of future minimum lease payments$3,707 
Current portion operating lease liability32 
Operating lease liability, noncurrent3,675 
Total operating lease liability$3,707 

Straight-line rent expense recognized for operating leases was $202,000 and $395,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020, respectively, and $42,000 and $109,000 for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2019, respectively. There were no significant variable lease payments, including non-lease components such as common area maintenance fees, recognized as rent expense for operating leases for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2020 and 2019.

The following information represents supplemental disclosure for the statement of cash flows related to the Company’s operating lease (in thousands):
Nine Months Ended September 30,
20202019
Cash flows from operating activities
Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities$144 $94 

The following summarizes additional information related to the operating lease:
September 30, 2020
Weighted-average remaining lease term (in years)7.7
Weighted-average discount rate7.0 %
Indemnification
In the ordinary course of business, the Company enters into agreements that may include indemnification provisions. Pursuant to such agreements, the Company may indemnify, hold harmless and defend an indemnified party for losses suffered or incurred by the indemnified party. Some of the provisions will limit losses to those arising from third party actions. In some cases, the indemnification will continue after the termination of the agreement. The maximum potential amount of future payments the Company could be required to make under these provisions is not determinable. The Company has never incurred material costs to defend lawsuits or settle claims related to these indemnification provisions. The Company has also entered into indemnification agreements with its directors and officers that may require the Company to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service as directors or officers to the fullest extent permitted by California corporate law. The Company currently has directors’ and officers’ insurance coverage that reduces its exposure and enables the Company to recover a portion of any future amounts paid. The Company believes any potential loss exposure under these indemnification agreements in excess of applicable insurance coverage is minimal.
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
7. Convertible Preferred Stock and Stockholders’ Equity (Deficit)
Convertible preferred stock as of December 31, 2019 consisted of the following (in thousands, except share amounts):
Convertible Preferred Stock
Shares
Authorized
Shares
Issued and
Outstanding
Net
Carrying
Value
Liquidation
Preference
Series A
13,800,000 6,897,575 $14,340 $13,800 
Series B
18,736,270 9,364,850 57,912 58,000 
Series C16,251,628 8,122,963 94,239 94,500 
Total48,787,898 24,385,388 $166,491 $166,300 
In connection with the Company's IPO in February 2020, all of the Company’s outstanding shares of convertible preferred stock were automatically converted into 24,385,388 shares of common stock.
In October 2019, the Company issued 8,122,963 shares of Series C convertible preferred stock at a purchase price of $11.63 per share for total net proceeds of $94.2 million, some of which were to related parties.
In September 2018, the Company issued 9,364,850 shares of Series B convertible preferred stock at a purchase price of $6.19 per share for total net proceeds of $54.9 million, some of which were to related parties.

In April 2017 and March 2018, the Company issued 3,590,845 and 3,156,784 shares, respectively, of Series A convertible preferred stock at a purchase price of $2.00 per share for net proceeds of $13.4 million. Additionally, in April 2017, the Company issued 149,946 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock as a result of the conversion of convertible promissory notes.
Common Stock
The holders of the Company’s common stock have one vote for each share of common stock. Common stockholders are entitled to dividends when, as, and if declared by the board of directors. The holders have no preemptive or other subscription rights and there are no redemption or sinking fund provisions with respect to such shares. As of September 30, 2020, no dividends had been declared by the board of directors.
The Company reserved the following shares of common stock for issuance as follows:
September 30, 2020December 31, 2019
Convertible preferred stock outstanding 24,385,388 
Options issued and outstanding3,604,363 2,516,470 
Common stock awards available for grant under employee benefit plans2,611,903 1,550,150 
Restricted stock units outstanding163,560  
Total common stock reserved6,379,826 28,452,008 
Authorized Share Capital
On February 4, 2020, the Company’s certificate of incorporation was amended and restated to provide for 300,000,000 authorized shares of common stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share and 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock with a par value of $0.0001 per share. There were no shares of preferred stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
8. Stock-Based Compensation
In January 2020, the Company’s board of directors approved the 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, (2020 Plan), which became effective January 30, 2020 in connection with the IPO. The 2020 Plan serves as the successor incentive award plan to the Company’s 2017 Equity Incentive Plan, (2017 Plan), and has 2,134,000 shares of
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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
common stock available for issuance pursuant to a variety of stock-based compensation awards, including stock options, stock appreciation rights, restricted stock awards, restricted stock unit awards and other stock-based awards, plus 1,550,150 shares of common stock that were reserved for issuance pursuant to future awards under the 2017 Plan at the time the 2020 Plan became effective, plus shares represented by awards outstanding under the 2017 Plan that are forfeited or lapsed unexercised and which following the effective date of the 2020 Plan are not issued under the 2017 Plan. In addition, the 2020 Plan reserve will increase on January 1, 2021 and each subsequent anniversary through 2030, by an amount equal to the lesser of (a) four percent of the shares of stock outstanding (on an as converted basis) on the day immediately prior to the date of increase and (b) such smaller number of shares of stock as determined by our board of directors; provided, however, that no more than 11,000,000 shares of stock may be issued upon the exercise of incentive stock options. As of September 30, 2020, the Company had 2,280,765 shares available for future grant under the 2020 Plan.
The 2020 Plan provides for the Company to sell or issue common stock or restricted common stock, or to grant incentive stock options or nonqualified stock options for the purchase of common stock, to employees, members of the board of directors and consultants of the Company under terms and provisions established by the board of directors. Under the terms of the 2020 Plan, options may be granted at an exercise price not less than fair market value. The Company generally grants stock-based awards with service conditions. Options granted typically vest over a four-year period but may be granted with different vesting terms.
Following the Company’s IPO and in connection with the effectiveness of the Company’s 2020 Plan, the 2017 Plan terminated and no further awards will be granted under that plan. However, all outstanding awards under the 2017 Plan will continue to be governed by their existing terms.
Stock Option Activity
The following summarizes option activity (in thousands, except share amounts):
Number of
Options
Weighted-
Average
Exercise
Price
Remaining
Contractual
Term
(Years)
Aggregate
Intrinsic
Value
Balance—December 31, 20192,516,470 $3.47 9.44$7,673 
Granted1,263,825 $27.14 
Exercised(151,932)$2.07 
Forfeited(24,000)$27.61 
Balance—September 30, 20203,604,363 $11.67 9.01$64,019 
Exercisable—September 30, 20201,972,132 (1)$7.37 8.80$43,245 
______________
(1)Options exercisable includes early exercisable options.
The aggregate intrinsic value is calculated as the difference between the exercise price of the options and the fair value of the Company’s common stock as of September 30, 2020. As of December 31, 2019, prior to the Company's IPO, the estimated fair value of the Company's common stock was determined by the board of directors.
The intrinsic value of options exercised for the nine months ended September 30, 2020 was $2.6 million.
The total grant-date fair value of the options vested during the nine months ended September 30, 2020 was $1.6 million. The weighted-average grant-date fair value of employee options granted during the nine months ended September 30, 2020 was $18.35.
Restricted Stock Unit Activity
The following table summarizes information regarding our restricted stock units (RSUs):

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ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Notes to Condensed Financial Statements
(unaudited)
Number of UnitsWeighted-Average
Grant Date Fair Value
Balance—December 31, 2019 $ 
Granted163,560 $27.26 
Vested $ 
Forfeited $ 
Unvested Balance—September 30, 2020163,560 $27.26 
The grant date fair value of an RSU equals the closing price of our common stock on the grant date. RSUs generally vest equally over 4 years. There were no RSU grants prior to January 1, 2020.

Stock-Based Compensation Expense
Stock-based compensation expense recognized in our condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss was as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended September 30,Nine Months Ended September 30,
2020201920202019
Research and development
$1,067 $57 $2,209 $146 
General and administrative
1,194 82 3,091 223 
Total stock-based compensation expense
$2,261 $139 $