Document

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 31, 2024
Registration No. 333-         
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
Form S-3
REGISTRATION STATEMENT
UNDER
THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
81-2974255
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300
Westlake Village, California 91361
Telephone: (805) 418-5006
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of registrant’s principal executive offices)
Todd Franklin Watanabe
President and Chief Executive Officer
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300
Westlake Village, California 91361
Telephone: (805) 418-5006
(Address, including zip code, and telephone number, including area code, of agent for service)
Copies to:
Masaru Matsuda
General Counsel
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300
Westlake Village, California 91361
(805) 418-5006
Ross McAloon
Shayne Kennedy
Latham and Watkins LLP
650 Town Center Drive, 20th Floor
Costa Mesa, California 92626
(714) 540-1235
APPROXIMATE DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF PROPOSED SALE TO THE PUBLIC: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.
If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. ☐
If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. ☒
If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. ☐
If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective on filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of Securities Act. ☐
The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.






EXPLANATORY NOTE
This registration statement contains:
a base prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $300,000,000 of the Company's common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, depositary shares, warrants, purchase contracts, and/or units, in each case from time to time in one or more offerings; and
a sales agreement prospectus covering the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $100,000,000 of the Company's common stock that may be issued and sold under a sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with Cowen and Company, LLC, or TD Cowen.
The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The specific terms of any other securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus will be specified in one or more prospectus supplements to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the Sales Agreement with TD Cowen are specified in the sales agreement prospectus that immediately follows the base prospectus.



The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated January 31, 2024.
PROSPECTUS
https://cdn.kscope.io/43d9084b1ab0526d152bdb71c760391a-logo1aa.jpg
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
$300,000,000
Common Stock
Preferred Stock
Debt Securities
Depositary Shares
Warrants
Purchase Contracts
Units

We may offer and sell up to $300,000,000 in the aggregate of the securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities.
Each time we offer and sell securities, we will provide a supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the offering and the amounts, prices and terms of the securities. The supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. You should carefully read this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement before you invest in any of our securities.
We may offer and sell the securities described in this prospectus and any prospectus supplement to or through one or more underwriters, dealers and agents, or directly to purchasers, or through a combination of these methods. If any underwriters, dealers or agents are involved in the sale of any of the securities, their names and any applicable purchase price, fee, commission or discount arrangement between or among them will be set forth, or will be calculable from the information set forth, in the applicable prospectus supplement. See the sections of this prospectus entitled “About this Prospectus” and “Plan of Distribution” for more information. No securities may be sold without delivery of this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement describing the method and terms of the offering of such securities.
INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES INVOLVES RISKS. SEE THE “RISK FACTORS” ON PAGE 5 OF THIS PROSPECTUS AND ANY SIMILAR SECTION CONTAINED IN THE APPLICABLE PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT CONCERNING FACTORS YOU SHOULD CONSIDER BEFORE INVESTING IN OUR SECURITIES.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARQT.” On January 30, 2024, the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $5.87 per share.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
The date of this prospectus is                 , 2024.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page



ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, using a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may sell securities from time to time and in one or more offerings up to a total dollar amount of $300,000,000 as described in this prospectus. Each time that we offer and sell securities, we will provide a prospectus supplement to this prospectus that contains specific information about the securities being offered and sold and the specific terms of that offering. We may also authorize one or more free writing prospectuses to be provided to you that may contain material information relating to these offerings. The prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus with respect to that offering. If there is any inconsistency between the information in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, you should rely on the prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, as applicable. Before purchasing any securities, you should carefully read both this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement (and any applicable free writing prospectuses), together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
We have not authorized anyone to provide you with any information or to make any representations other than those contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any free writing prospectuses prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We will not make an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to this prospectus is accurate only as of the date on its respective cover, that the information appearing in any applicable free writing prospectus is accurate only as of the date of that free writing prospectus, and that any information incorporated by reference is accurate only as of the date of the document incorporated by reference, unless we indicate otherwise. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. This prospectus incorporates by reference, and any prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus may contain and incorporate by reference, market data and industry statistics and forecasts that are based on independent industry publications and other publicly available information. Although we believe these sources are reliable, we do not guarantee the accuracy or completeness of this information and we have not independently verified this information. In addition, the market and industry data and forecasts that may be included or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement or any applicable free writing prospectus may involve estimates, assumptions and other risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the heading “Risk Factors” contained in this prospectus, the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus, and under similar headings in other documents that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus. Accordingly, investors should not place undue reliance on this information.
When we refer to “Arcutis Biotherapeutics,” “Arcutis,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the potential holders of the applicable series of securities.
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WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION; INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Available Information
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. The SEC maintains a web site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information about issuers, such as us, who file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is http://www.sec.gov.
Our web site address is www.arcutis.com. The information on our web site, however, is not, and should not be deemed to be, a part of this prospectus or any prospectus supplement.
This prospectus and any prospectus supplement are part of a registration statement that we filed with the SEC and do not contain all of the information in the registration statement. The full registration statement may be obtained from the SEC or us, as provided below. Forms of the indenture and other documents establishing the terms of the offered securities are or may be filed as exhibits to the registration statement or documents incorporated by reference in the registration statement. Statements in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement about these documents are summaries and each statement is qualified in all respects by reference to the document to which it refers. You should refer to the actual documents for a more complete description of the relevant matters. You may inspect a copy of the registration statement through the SEC’s website, as provided above.
Incorporation by Reference
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporate by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023.
The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 18, 2023.
Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on May 9, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023; our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2023, filed with the SEC on August 8, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023; and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, filed with the SEC on November 3, 2023.
Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 24, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02), June 5, 2023, August 14, 2023, August 18, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02) (as amended September 7, 2023), September 27, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02), October 19, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 8.01 and Item 9.01), October 23, 2023, December 18, 2023 and January 11, 2024.
The description of our securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
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All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
Attn: Head of Investor Relations
3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Telephone: (805) 418-5006
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
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THE COMPANY
We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing treatments for dermatological diseases with high unmet medical needs. Our current portfolio is comprised of highly differentiated topical and systemic treatments with significant potential to treat immune-mediated dermatological diseases and conditions. We believe we have built the industry's leading platform for dermatologic product development and commercialization. Our strategy is to focus on validated biological targets, and to use our drug development platform and deep dermatology expertise to develop differentiated products that have the potential to address the major shortcomings of existing therapies in our targeted indications. We believe this strategy uniquely positions us to rapidly advance our goal of bridging the treatment innovation gap in dermatology, while maximizing our probability of technical success and financial resources.
We were formed under the laws of the State of Delaware in June 2016 under the name Arcutis, Inc. and changed our name to Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc. in October 2019. Our principal executive offices are located at 3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91361, and our telephone number is (805) 418-5006. Our website address is www.arcutis.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered a part of this prospectus.
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RISK FACTORS
Investment in any securities offered pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement involves risks. Before deciding whether to invest in our securities, you should carefully consider the risk factors incorporated by reference to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K, and all other information contained or incorporated by reference into this prospectus, as updated by our subsequent filings under the Exchange Act, and the risk factors and other information contained in the applicable prospectus supplement and any applicable free writing prospectus. The occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment in the offered securities. There may be other unknown or unpredictable economic, business, competitive, regulatory or other factors that could have material adverse effects on our future results. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our securities to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also carefully read the section entitled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” included in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and any subsequent Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q or Current Reports on Form 8-K.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which have been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARQT.”
Dividend Rights
Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock will be able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
No Preemptive or Similar Rights
Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.
Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company. The transfer agent’s address is 1110 Centre Pointe Curve, Suite 101, Mendota Heights, MN 55120-4101.
Preferred Stock
Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or
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action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Pre-Funded Warrants
In October 2023, in an underwritten public offering of our common stock, we issued and sold, in lieu of common stock for certain investors, pre-funded warrants to purchase 7,500,000 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $2.4999 per underlying share of common stock. The exercise price of the warrants is $0.0001 per underlying share of common stock. The pre-funded warrants are exercisable at any time.
Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Delaware Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. Under Section 203, we would generally be prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that this stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:
prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Under Section 203, a “business combination” includes:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder, subject to limited exceptions;
any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
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the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.
Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:
Board of Directors Vacancies. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.
Classified Board. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.
Stockholder Action; Special Meetings of Stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.
Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations. Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
No Cumulative Voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.
Directors Removed Only for Cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.
Amendment of Charter Provisions. Any amendment of the above provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.
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Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.
Choice of Forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. This exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. It could apply, however, to a suit that falls within one or more of the categories enumerated in the exclusive forum provision and asserts claims under the Securities Act, inasmuch as Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
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DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES
The following description, together with the additional information we include in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, summarizes certain general terms and provisions of the debt securities that we may offer under this prospectus. When we offer to sell a particular series of debt securities, we will describe the specific terms of the series in a supplement to this prospectus. We will also indicate in the supplement to what extent the general terms and provisions described in this prospectus apply to a particular series of debt securities.
We may issue debt securities either separately, or together with, or upon the conversion or exercise of or in exchange for, other securities described in this prospectus. Debt securities may be our senior, senior subordinated or subordinated obligations and, unless otherwise specified in a supplement to this prospectus, the debt securities will be our direct, unsecured obligations and may be issued in one or more series.
The debt securities will be issued under an indenture between us and a trustee to be named in the applicable indenture. We have summarized select portions of the indenture below. The summary is not complete. The form of the indenture has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement and you should read the indenture for provisions that may be important to you. In the summary below, we have included references to the section numbers of the indenture so that you can easily locate these provisions. Capitalized terms used in the summary and not defined herein have the meanings specified in the indenture.
As used in this section only, “Arcutis Biotherapeutics,” “Arcutis,” “we,” “our” or “us” refer to Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
General
The terms of each series of debt securities will be established by or pursuant to a resolution of our board of directors and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a resolution of our board of directors, in an officer’s certificate or by a supplemental indenture. (Section 2.2) The particular terms of each series of debt securities will be described in a prospectus supplement relating to such series (including any pricing supplement or term sheet).
We can issue an unlimited amount of debt securities under the indenture that may be in one or more series with the same or various maturities, at par, at a premium, or at a discount. (Section 2.1) We will set forth in a prospectus supplement (including any pricing supplement or term sheet) relating to any series of debt securities being offered, the aggregate principal amount and the following terms of the debt securities, if applicable:
the title and ranking of the debt securities (including the terms of any subordination provisions);
the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount) at which we will sell the debt securities;
any limit on the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities;
the date or dates on which the principal of the securities of the series is payable;
the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or the method used to determine the rate or rates (including any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the debt securities will bear interest, the date or dates from which interest will accrue, the date or dates on which interest will commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
the place or places where principal of, and interest, if any, on the debt securities will be payable (and the method of such payment), where the securities of such series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange, and where notices and demands to us in respect of the debt securities may be delivered;
the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which we may redeem the debt securities;
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any obligation we have to redeem or purchase the debt securities pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a holder of debt securities and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and in the terms and conditions upon which securities of the series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
the dates on which and the price or prices at which we will repurchase debt securities at the option of the holders of debt securities and other detailed terms and provisions of these repurchase obligations;
the denominations in which the debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;
whether the debt securities will be issued in the form of certificated debt securities or global debt securities;
the portion of principal amount of the debt securities payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity date, if other than the principal amount;
the currency of denomination of the debt securities, which may be United States Dollars or any foreign currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of principal of, premium and interest on the debt securities will be made;
if payments of principal of, premium or interest on the debt securities will be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which the debt securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to these payments will be determined;
the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, premium, if any, or interest on the debt securities will be determined, if these amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
any provisions relating to any security provided for the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities and any change in the acceleration provisions described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants described in this prospectus or in the indenture with respect to the debt securities;
any depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to the debt securities;
the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of such series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price and period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange;
any other terms of the debt securities, which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of the indenture as it applies to that series, including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of the securities; and
whether any of our direct or indirect subsidiaries will guarantee the debt securities of that series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees. (Section 2.2)
We may issue debt securities that provide for an amount less than their stated principal amount to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of their maturity pursuant to the terms of the indenture. We will provide
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you with information on the federal income tax considerations and other special considerations applicable to any of these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.
If we denominate the purchase price of any of the debt securities in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, or if the principal of and any premium and interest on any series of debt securities is payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units, we will provide you with information on the restrictions, elections, general tax considerations, specific terms and other information with respect to that issue of debt securities and such foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Transfer and Exchange
Each debt security will be represented by either one or more global securities registered in the name of The Depository Trust Company, or the Depositary, or a nominee of the Depositary (we will refer to any debt security represented by a global debt security as a “book-entry debt security”), or a certificate issued in definitive registered form (we will refer to any debt security represented by a certificated security as a “certificated debt security”) as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Except as set forth under the heading “Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System” below, book-entry debt securities will not be issuable in certificated form.
Certificated Debt Securities. You may transfer or exchange certificated debt securities at any office we maintain for this purpose in accordance with the terms of the indenture. (Section 2.4) No service charge will be made for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities, but we may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with a transfer or exchange. (Section 2.7)
You may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and the right to receive the principal of, premium and interest on certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing those certificated debt securities and either reissuance by us or the trustee of the certificate to the new holder or the issuance by us or the trustee of a new certificate to the new holder.
Global Debt Securities and Book-Entry System. Each global debt security representing book-entry debt securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, the Depositary, and registered in the name of the Depositary or a nominee of the Depositary. Please see “Global Securities.”
Covenants
We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities. (Article IV)
No Protection in the Event of a Change of Control
Unless we state otherwise in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will not contain any provisions which may afford holders of the debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control) which could adversely affect holders of debt securities.
Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets
We may not consolidate with or merge with or into, or convey, transfer or lease all or substantially all of our properties and assets to any person (a “successor person”) unless:
we are the surviving entity or the successor person (if other than Arcutis) is a corporation, partnership, trust or other entity organized and validly existing under the laws of any U.S. domestic jurisdiction and expressly assumes our obligations on the debt securities and under the indenture; and
immediately after giving effect to the transaction, no Default or Event of Default, shall have occurred and be continuing.
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Notwithstanding the above, any of our subsidiaries may consolidate with, merge into or transfer all or part of its properties to us. (Section 5.1)
Events of Default
“Event of Default” means with respect to any series of debt securities, any of the following:
default in the payment of any interest upon any debt security of that series when it becomes due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days (unless the entire amount of the payment is deposited by us with the trustee or with a paying agent prior to the expiration of the 30-day period);
default in the payment of principal of any security of that series at its maturity;
default in the performance or breach of any other covenant or warranty by us in the indenture (other than a covenant or warranty that has been included in the indenture solely for the benefit of a series of debt securities other than that series), which default continues uncured for a period of 60 days after we receive written notice from the trustee or Arcutis and the trustee receive written notice from the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series as provided in the indenture;
certain voluntary or involuntary events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of Arcutis;
any other Event of Default provided with respect to debt securities of that series that is described in the applicable prospectus supplement. (Section 6.1)
No Event of Default with respect to a particular series of debt securities (except as to certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization) necessarily constitutes an Event of Default with respect to any other series of debt securities. (Section 6.1) The occurrence of certain Events of Default or an acceleration under the indenture may constitute an event of default under certain indebtedness of ours or our subsidiaries outstanding from time to time.
We will provide the trustee written notice of any Default or Event of Default within 30 days of becoming aware of the occurrence of such Default or Event of Default, which notice will describe in reasonable detail the status of such Default or Event of Default and what action we are taking or propose to take in respect thereof. (Section 6.1)
If an Event of Default with respect to debt securities of any series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, then the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, by a notice in writing to us (and to the trustee if given by the holders), declare to be due and payable immediately the principal of (or, if the debt securities of that series are discount securities, that portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of that series) and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all debt securities of that series. In the case of an Event of Default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, the principal (or such specified amount) of and accrued and unpaid interest, if any, on all outstanding debt securities will become and be immediately due and payable without any declaration or other act on the part of the trustee or any holder of outstanding debt securities. At any time after a declaration of acceleration with respect to debt securities of any series has been made, but before a judgment or decree for payment of the money due has been obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may rescind and annul the acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the non-payment of accelerated principal and interest, if any, with respect to debt securities of that series, have been cured or waived as provided in the indenture. (Section 6.2) We refer you to the prospectus supplement relating to any series of debt securities that are discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of a portion of the principal amount of such discount securities upon the occurrence of an Event of Default.
The indenture provides that the trustee may refuse to perform any duty or exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture unless the trustee receives indemnity satisfactory to it against any cost, liability or expense which might be incurred by it in performing such duty or exercising such right or power. (Section 7.1(e)) Subject to certain rights of the trustee, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series will have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available
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to the trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to the debt securities of that series. (Section 6.12)
No holder of any debt security of any series will have any right to institute any proceeding, judicial or otherwise, with respect to the indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:
that holder has previously given to the trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to debt securities of that series; and
the holders of not less than 25% in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series have made written request, and offered indemnity or security satisfactory to the trustee, to the trustee to institute the proceeding as trustee, and the trustee has not received from the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series a direction inconsistent with that request and has failed to institute the proceeding within 60 days. (Section 6.7)
Notwithstanding any other provision in the indenture, the holder of any debt security will have an absolute and unconditional right to receive payment of the principal of, premium and any interest on that debt security on or after the due dates expressed in that debt security and to institute suit for the enforcement of payment. (Section 6.8)
The indenture requires us, within 120 days after the end of our fiscal year, to furnish to the trustee a statement as to compliance with the indenture. (Section 4.3) If a Default or Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the securities of any series and if it is known to a responsible officer of the trustee, the trustee shall mail to each securityholder of the securities of that series notice of a Default or Event of Default within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a responsible officer of the trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default. The indenture provides that the trustee may withhold notice to the holders of debt securities of any series of any Default or Event of Default (except in payment on any debt securities of that series) with respect to debt securities of that series if the trustee determines in good faith that withholding notice is in the interest of the holders of those debt securities. (Section 7.5)
Modification and Waiver
We and the trustee may modify, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities of any series without the consent of any holder of any debt security:
to cure any ambiguity, defect or inconsistency;
to comply with covenants in the indenture described above under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets”;
to provide for uncertificated securities in addition to or in place of certificated securities;
to add guarantees with respect to debt securities of any series or secure debt securities of any series;
to surrender any of our rights or powers under the indenture;
to add covenants or events of default for the benefit of the holders of debt securities of any series;
to comply with the applicable procedures of the applicable depositary;
to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any holder of debt securities;
to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture;
to effect the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the debt securities of any series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture to provide for or facilitate administration by more than one trustee; or
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to comply with requirements of the SEC in order to effect or maintain the qualification of the indenture under the Trust Indenture Act. (Section 9.1)
We may also modify and amend the indenture with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each series affected by the modifications or amendments. We may not make any modification or amendment without the consent of the holders of each affected debt security then outstanding if that amendment will:
reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver;
reduce the rate of or extend the time for payment of interest (including default interest) on any debt security;
reduce the principal of or premium on or change the fixed maturity of any debt security or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation with respect to any series of debt securities;
reduce the principal amount of discount securities payable upon acceleration of maturity;
waive a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or interest on any debt security (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of that series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);
make the principal of or premium or interest on any debt security payable in currency other than that stated in the debt security;
make any change to certain provisions of the indenture relating to, among other things, the right of holders of debt securities to receive payment of the principal of, premium and interest on those debt securities and to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment and to waivers or amendments; or
waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt security. (Section 9.3)
Except for certain specified provisions, the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all debt securities of that series waive our compliance with provisions of the indenture. (Section 9.2) The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may on behalf of the holders of all the debt securities of such series waive any past default under the indenture with respect to that series and its consequences, except a default in the payment of the principal of, premium or any interest on any debt security of that series; provided, however, that the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series may rescind an acceleration and its consequences, including any related payment default that resulted from the acceleration. (Section 6.13)
Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances
Legal Defeasance. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, we may be discharged from any and all obligations in respect of the debt securities of any series (subject to certain exceptions). We will be so discharged upon the irrevocable deposit with the trustee, in trust, of money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money or U.S. government obligations in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities.
This discharge may occur only if, among other things, we have delivered to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the United States Internal Revenue Service a ruling or, since the date of execution of the indenture, there has been a change in the applicable United States federal
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income tax law, in either case to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, defeasance and discharge and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit, defeasance and discharge had not occurred. (Section 8.3)
Defeasance of Certain Covenants. The indenture provides that, unless otherwise provided by the terms of the applicable series of debt securities, upon compliance with certain conditions:
we may omit to comply with the covenant described under the heading “Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets” and certain other covenants set forth in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement; and
any omission to comply with those covenants will not constitute a Default or an Event of Default with respect to the debt securities of that series (“covenant defeasance”).
The conditions include:
depositing with the trustee money and/or U.S. government obligations or, in the case of debt securities denominated in a single currency other than U.S. Dollars, government obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency, that, through the payment of interest and principal in accordance with their terms, will provide money in an amount sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants or investment bank to pay and discharge each installment of principal of, premium and interest on and any mandatory sinking fund payments in respect of the debt securities of that series on the stated maturity of those payments in accordance with the terms of the indenture and those debt securities; and
delivering to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the debt securities of that series will not recognize income, gain or loss for United States federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and related covenant defeasance and will be subject to United States federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if the deposit and related covenant defeasance had not occurred. (Section 8.4)
No Personal Liability of Directors, Officers, Employees or Securityholders
None of our past, present or future directors, officers, employees or securityholders, as such, will have any liability for any of our obligations under the debt securities or the indenture or for any claim based on, or in respect or by reason of, such obligations or their creation. By accepting a debt security, each holder waives and releases all such liability. This waiver and release is part of the consideration for the issue of the debt securities. However, this waiver and release may not be effective to waive liabilities under U.S. federal securities laws, and it is the view of the SEC that such a waiver is against public policy.
Governing Law
The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.
The indenture will provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably waive, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, any and all right to trial by jury in any legal proceeding arising out of or relating to the indenture, the debt securities or the transactions contemplated thereby.
The indenture will provide that any legal suit, action or proceeding arising out of or based upon the indenture or the transactions contemplated thereby may be instituted in the federal courts of the United States of America located in the City of New York or the courts of the State of New York in each case located in the City of New York, and we, the trustee and the holder of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of such courts in any such suit, action or proceeding. The indenture will further
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provide that service of any process, summons, notice or document by mail (to the extent allowed under any applicable statute or rule of court) to such party’s address set forth in the indenture will be effective service of process for any suit, action or other proceeding brought in any such court. The indenture will further provide that we, the trustee and the holders of the debt securities (by their acceptance of the debt securities) irrevocably and unconditionally waive any objection to the laying of venue of any suit, action or other proceeding in the courts specified above and irrevocably and unconditionally waive and agree not to plead or claim any such suit, action or other proceeding has been brought in an inconvenient forum. (Section 10.10)
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DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES
We may, at our option, elect to offer depositary shares rather than full shares of preferred stock. Each depositary share will represent ownership of and entitlement to all rights and preferences of a fraction of a share of preferred stock of a specified series (including dividend, voting, redemption and liquidation rights). The applicable fraction will be specified in a prospectus supplement. The shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares will be deposited with a depositary named in the applicable prospectus supplement, under a deposit agreement among us, the depositary and the holders of the certificates evidencing depositary shares, or depositary receipts. Depositary receipts will be delivered to those persons purchasing depositary shares in the offering. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence and paying certain charges.
The summary of the terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus does not purport to be complete and is subject to, and qualified in its entirety by, the provisions of the deposit agreement and our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation that are, or will be, filed with the SEC for the applicable series of preferred stock.
Dividends
The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions received in respect of the series of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary receipts in proportion to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, which will be the same date as the record date fixed by us for the applicable series of preferred stock. The depositary, however, will distribute only such amount as can be distributed without attributing to any depositary share a fraction of one cent, and any balance not so distributed will be added to and treated as part of the next sum received by the depositary for distribution to record holders of depositary receipts then outstanding.
In the event of a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property received by it to the record holders of depositary receipts entitled thereto, in proportion, as nearly as may be practicable, to the number of depositary shares owned by such holders on the relevant record date, unless the depositary determines (after consultation with us) that it is not feasible to make such distribution, in which case the depositary may (with our approval) adopt any other method for such distribution as it deems equitable and appropriate, including the sale of such property (at such place or places and upon such terms as it may deem equitable and appropriate) and distribution of the net proceeds from such sale to such holders.
Liquidation Preference
In the event of the liquidation, dissolution or winding up of the affairs of Arcutis, whether voluntary or involuntary, the holders of each depositary share will be entitled to the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.
Redemption
If the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares is redeemable, such depositary shares will be redeemed from the proceeds received by the depositary resulting from the redemption, in whole or in part, of the preferred stock held by the depositary. Whenever we redeem any preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing the shares of preferred stock so redeemed. The depositary will mail the notice of redemption promptly upon receipt of such notice from us and not less than 30 nor more than 60 days prior to the date fixed for redemption of the preferred stock and the depositary shares to the record holders of the depositary receipts.
Voting
Promptly upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the series of preferred stock represented by the applicable series of depositary shares are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained
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in such notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts as of the record date for such meeting. Each such record holder of depositary receipts will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by such record holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote such preferred stock represented by such depositary shares in accordance with such instructions, and we will agree to take all action which may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will abstain from voting any of the preferred stock to the extent that it does not receive specific instructions from the holders of depositary receipts.
Withdrawal of Preferred Stock
Upon surrender of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary and payment of any unpaid amount due the depositary, and subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, the owner of the depositary shares evidenced thereby is entitled to delivery of the number of whole shares of preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented by such depositary shares. Partial shares of preferred stock will not be issued. If the depositary receipts delivered by the holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to such holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing such excess number of depositary shares. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn will not thereafter be entitled to deposit such shares under the deposit agreement or to receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.
Amendment and Termination of Deposit Agreement
The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may at any time and from time to time be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment which materially and adversely alters the rights of the holders (other than any change in fees) of depositary shares will not be effective unless such amendment has been approved by at least a majority of the depositary shares then outstanding. No such amendment may impair the right, subject to the terms of the deposit agreement, of any owner of any depositary shares to surrender the depositary receipt evidencing such depositary shares with instructions to the depositary to deliver to the holder of the preferred stock and all money and other property, if any, represented thereby, except in order to comply with mandatory provisions of applicable law.
The deposit agreement will be permitted to be terminated by us upon not less than 30 days prior written notice to the applicable depositary if a majority of each series of preferred stock affected by such termination consents to such termination, whereupon such depositary will be required to deliver or make available to each holder of depositary receipts, upon surrender of the depositary receipts held by such holder, such number of whole or fractional shares of preferred stock as are represented by the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipts together with any other property held by such depositary with respect to such depositary receipts. In addition, the deposit agreement will automatically terminate if (a) all outstanding depositary shares thereunder shall have been redeemed, (b) there shall have been a final distribution in respect of the related preferred stock in connection with any liquidation, dissolution or winding-up of Arcutis and such distribution shall have been distributed to the holders of depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares representing such preferred stock or (c) each share of the related preferred stock shall have been converted into stock of Arcutis not so represented by depositary shares.
Charges of Depositary
We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay charges of the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and initial issuance of the depositary shares, and redemption of the preferred stock and all withdrawals of preferred stock by owners of depositary shares. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and certain other charges as are provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. In certain circumstances, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, may withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by such depositary receipt if such charges are not paid. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information with respect to fees and charges, if any, in connection with the deposit or substitution of the underlying securities, the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the underlying security, and the transferring, splitting or grouping of
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receipts. The applicable prospectus supplement will also include information with respect to the right to collect the fees and charges, if any, against dividends received and deposited securities.
Miscellaneous
The depositary will forward to the holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and proxy soliciting material from us which are delivered to the depositary and which we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any notices, reports and proxy soliciting material received from us which are received by the depositary as the holder of preferred stock. The applicable prospectus supplement will include information about the rights, if any, of holders of receipts to inspect the transfer books of the depositary and the list of holders of receipts.
Neither the depositary nor Arcutis assumes any obligation or will be subject to any liability under the deposit agreement to holders of depositary receipts other than for its negligence or willful misconduct. Neither the depositary nor Arcutis will be liable if it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations under the deposit agreement. The obligations of Arcutis and the depositary under the deposit agreement will be limited to performance in good faith of their duties thereunder, and they will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. Arcutis and the depositary may rely on written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by holders of the depositary receipts or other persons believed in good faith to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.
In the event the depositary shall receive conflicting claims, requests or instructions from any holders of depositary receipts, on the one hand, and us, on the other hand, the depositary shall be entitled to act on such claims, requests or instructions received from us.
Resignation and Removal of Depositary
The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may at any time remove the depositary, any such resignation or removal to take effect upon the appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. Such successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice for resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having a combined capital and surplus of at least $150,000,000.
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DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS
We may issue warrants for the purchase of shares of our common stock or preferred stock or of debt securities. We may issue warrants independently or together with other securities, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from any offered securities. Each series of warrants will be issued under a separate warrant agreement to be entered into between us and the investors or a warrant agent. The following summary of material provisions of the warrants and warrant agreements are subject to, and qualified in their entirety by reference to, all the provisions of the warrant agreement and warrant certificate applicable to a particular series of warrants. The terms of any warrants offered under a prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below. We urge you to read the applicable prospectus supplement and any related free writing prospectus, as well as the complete warrant agreements and warrant certificates that contain the terms of the warrants.
The particular terms of any issue of warrants will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to the issue. Those terms may include:
the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon the exercise of warrants to purchase such shares and the price at which such number of shares may be purchased upon such exercise;
the designation, stated value and terms (including, without limitation, liquidation, dividend, conversion and voting rights) of the series of preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of warrants to purchase preferred stock;
the principal amount of debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of a debt warrant and the exercise price for the warrants, which may be payable in cash, securities or other property;
the date, if any, on and after which the warrants and the related debt securities, preferred stock or common stock will be separately transferable;
the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;
the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and the date on which the right will expire;
United States Federal income tax consequences applicable to the warrants; and
any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures, and limitations relating to the exchange, exercise and settlement of the warrants.
Holders of equity warrants will not be entitled:
to vote, consent or receive dividends;
receive notice as shareholders with respect to any meeting of shareholders for the election of our directors or any other matter; or             
exercise any rights as shareholders of Arcutis.
Each warrant will entitle its holder to purchase the principal amount of debt securities or the number of shares of preferred stock or common stock at the exercise price set forth in, or calculable as set forth in, the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to the specified time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.
A holder of warrant certificates may exchange them for new warrant certificates of different denominations, present them for registration of transfer and exercise them at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. Until any warrants to purchase debt securities are exercised, the holder of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the debt securities that can be purchased upon exercise, including any rights to receive payments of principal, premium or interest on the underlying debt
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securities or to enforce covenants in the applicable indenture. Until any warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock are exercised, the holders of the warrants will not have any rights of holders of the underlying common stock or preferred stock, including any rights to receive dividends or payments upon any liquidation, dissolution or winding up on the common stock or preferred stock, if any.
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DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS
We may issue purchase contracts for the purchase or sale of debt or equity securities issued by us. Each purchase contract will entitle the holder thereof to purchase or sell, and obligate us to sell or purchase, on specified dates, such securities at a specified purchase price, which may be based on a formula, all as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. Any purchase contracts we issue will be physically settled by delivery of such securities. The applicable prospectus supplement will also specify the methods by which the holders may purchase or sell such securities and any acceleration, cancellation or termination provisions or other provisions relating to the settlement of a purchase contract.
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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS
We may issue units consisting of any combination of the other types of securities offered under this prospectus in one or more series. We may evidence each series of units by unit certificates that we will issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into unit agreements with a unit agent. Each unit agent will be a bank or trust company that we select. We will indicate the name and address of the unit agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of units.
The following description, together with the additional information included in any applicable prospectus supplement, summarizes the general features of the units that we may offer under this prospectus. You should read any prospectus supplement and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize to be provided to you related to the series of units being offered, as well as the complete unit agreements that contain the terms of the units. Specific unit agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and we will file as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, or will incorporate by reference from another report that we file with the SEC, the form of each unit agreement relating to units offered under this prospectus.
If we offer any units, certain terms of that series of units will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, without limitation, the following, as applicable:
the title of the series of units;
identification and description of the separate constituent securities comprising the units;
the price or prices at which the units will be issued;
the date, if any, on and after which the constituent securities comprising the units will be separately transferable;
a discussion of certain United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the units; and
any other terms of the units and their constituent securities.
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GLOBAL SECURITIES
Book-Entry, Delivery and Form
Unless we indicate differently in any applicable prospectus supplement or free writing prospectus, the securities initially will be issued in book-entry form and represented by one or more global notes or global securities, or, collectively, global securities. The global securities will be deposited with, or on behalf of, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, as depositary, or DTC, and registered in the name of Cede & Co., the nominee of DTC. Unless and until it is exchanged for individual certificates evidencing securities under the limited circumstances described below, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by the depositary to its nominee or by the nominee to the depositary, or by the depositary or its nominee to a successor depositary or to a nominee of the successor depositary.
DTC has advised us that it is:
a limited-purpose trust company organized under the New York Banking Law;
a “banking organization” within the meaning of the New York Banking Law;
a member of the Federal Reserve System;
a “clearing corporation” within the meaning of the New York Uniform Commercial Code; and
a “clearing agency” registered pursuant to the provisions of Section 17A of the Exchange Act.
DTC holds securities that its participants deposit with DTC. DTC also facilitates the settlement among its participants of securities transactions, such as transfers and pledges, in deposited securities through electronic computerized book-entry changes in participants’ accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of securities certificates. “Direct participants” in DTC include securities brokers and dealers, including underwriters, banks, trust companies, clearing corporations and other organizations. DTC is a wholly-owned subsidiary of The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, or DTCC. DTCC is the holding company for DTC, National Securities Clearing Corporation and Fixed Income Clearing Corporation, all of which are registered clearing agencies. DTCC is owned by the users of its regulated subsidiaries. Access to the DTC system is also available to others, which we sometimes refer to as indirect participants, that clear through or maintain a custodial relationship with a direct participant, either directly or indirectly. The rules applicable to DTC and its participants are on file with the SEC.
Purchases of securities under the DTC system must be made by or through direct participants, which will receive a credit for the securities on DTC’s records. The ownership interest of the actual purchaser of a security, which we sometimes refer to as a beneficial owner, is in turn recorded on the direct and indirect participants’ records. Beneficial owners of securities will not receive written confirmation from DTC of their purchases. However, beneficial owners are expected to receive written confirmations providing details of their transactions, as well as periodic statements of their holdings, from the direct or indirect participants through which they purchased securities. Transfers of ownership interests in global securities are to be accomplished by entries made on the books of participants acting on behalf of beneficial owners. Beneficial owners will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in the global securities, except under the limited circumstances described below.
To facilitate subsequent transfers, all global securities deposited by direct participants with DTC will be registered in the name of DTC’s partnership nominee, Cede & Co., or such other name as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. The deposit of securities with DTC and their registration in the name of Cede & Co. or such other nominee will not change the beneficial ownership of the securities. DTC has no knowledge of the actual beneficial owners of the securities. DTC’s records reflect only the identity of the direct participants to whose accounts the securities are credited, which may or may not be the beneficial owners. The participants are responsible for keeping account of their holdings on behalf of their customers.
So long as the securities are in book-entry form, you will receive payments and may transfer securities only through the facilities of the depositary and its direct and indirect participants. We will maintain an office or agency in the location specified in the prospectus supplement for the applicable securities, where notices and demands in
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respect of the securities and the indenture may be delivered to us and where certificated securities may be surrendered for payment, registration of transfer or exchange.
Conveyance of notices and other communications by DTC to direct participants, by direct participants to indirect participants and by direct participants and indirect participants to beneficial owners will be governed by arrangements among them, subject to any legal requirements in effect from time to time.
Redemption notices will be sent to DTC. If less than all of the securities of a particular series are being redeemed, DTC’s practice is to determine by lot the amount of the interest of each direct participant in the securities of such series to be redeemed.
Neither DTC nor Cede & Co. (or such other DTC nominee) will consent or vote with respect to the securities. Under its usual procedures, DTC will mail an omnibus proxy to us as soon as possible after the record date. The omnibus proxy assigns the consenting or voting rights of Cede & Co. to those direct participants to whose accounts the securities of such series are credited on the record date, identified in a listing attached to the omnibus proxy.
So long as securities are in book-entry form, we will make payments on those securities to the depositary or its nominee, as the registered owner of such securities, by wire transfer of immediately available funds. If securities are issued in definitive certificated form under the limited circumstances described below and unless if otherwise provided in the description of the applicable securities herein or in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will have the option of making payments by check mailed to the addresses of the persons entitled to payment or by wire transfer to bank accounts in the United States designated in writing to the applicable trustee or other designated party at least 15 days before the applicable payment date by the persons entitled to payment, unless a shorter period is satisfactory to the applicable trustee or other designated party.
Redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments on the securities will be made to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC. DTC’s practice is to credit direct participants’ accounts upon DTC’s receipt of funds and corresponding detail information from us on the payment date in accordance with their respective holdings shown on DTC records. Payments by participants to beneficial owners will be governed by standing instructions and customary practices, as is the case with securities held for the account of customers in bearer form or registered in “street name.” Those payments will be the responsibility of participants and not of DTC or us, subject to any statutory or regulatory requirements in effect from time to time. Payment of redemption proceeds, distributions and dividend payments to Cede & Co., or such other nominee as may be requested by an authorized representative of DTC, is our responsibility, disbursement of payments to direct participants is the responsibility of DTC, and disbursement of payments to the beneficial owners is the responsibility of direct and indirect participants.
Except under the limited circumstances described below, purchasers of securities will not be entitled to have securities registered in their names and will not receive physical delivery of securities. Accordingly, each beneficial owner must rely on the procedures of DTC and its participants to exercise any rights under the securities and the indenture.
The laws of some jurisdictions may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of securities in definitive form. Those laws may impair the ability to transfer or pledge beneficial interests in securities.
DTC may discontinue providing its services as securities depositary with respect to the securities at any time by giving reasonable notice to us. Under such circumstances, in the event that a successor depositary is not obtained, securities certificates are required to be printed and delivered.
As noted above, beneficial owners of a particular series of securities generally will not receive certificates representing their ownership interests in those securities. However, if:
DTC notifies us that it is unwilling or unable to continue as a depositary for the global security or securities representing such series of securities or if DTC ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act at a time when it is required to be registered and a successor depositary is not appointed
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within 90 days of the notification to us or of our becoming aware of DTC’s ceasing to be so registered, as the case may be;
we determine, in our sole discretion, not to have such securities represented by one or more global securities; or
an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing with respect to such series of securities,
we will prepare and deliver certificates for such securities in exchange for beneficial interests in the global securities. Any beneficial interest in a global security that is exchangeable under the circumstances described in the preceding sentence will be exchangeable for securities in definitive certificated form registered in the names that the depositary directs. It is expected that these directions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from its participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global securities.
Euroclear and Clearstream
If so provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, you may hold interests in a global security through Clearstream Banking S.A., which we refer to as “Clearstream,” or Euroclear Bank S.A./N.V., as operator of the Euroclear System, which we refer to as “Euroclear,” either directly if you are a participant in Clearstream or Euroclear or indirectly through organizations which are participants in Clearstream or Euroclear. Clearstream and Euroclear will hold interests on behalf of their respective participants through customers’ securities accounts in the names of Clearstream and Euroclear, respectively, on the books of their respective U.S. depositaries, which in turn will hold such interests in customers’ securities accounts in such depositaries’ names on DTC’s books.
Clearstream and Euroclear are securities clearance systems in Europe. Clearstream and Euroclear hold securities for their respective participating organizations and facilitate the clearance and settlement of securities transactions between those participants through electronic book-entry changes in their accounts, thereby eliminating the need for physical movement of certificates.
Payments, deliveries, transfers, exchanges, notices and other matters relating to beneficial interests in global securities owned through Euroclear or Clearstream must comply with the rules and procedures of those systems. Transactions between participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on one hand, and other participants in DTC, on the other hand, are also subject to DTC’s rules and procedures.
Investors will be able to make and receive through Euroclear and Clearstream payments, deliveries, transfers and other transactions involving any beneficial interests in global securities held through those systems only on days when those systems are open for business. Those systems may not be open for business on days when banks, brokers and other institutions are open for business in the United States.
Cross-market transfers between participants in DTC, on the one hand, and participants in Euroclear or Clearstream, on the other hand, will be effected through DTC in accordance with the DTC’s rules on behalf of Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by their respective U.S. depositaries; however, such cross-market transactions will require delivery of instructions to Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, by the counterparty in such system in accordance with the rules and procedures and within the established deadlines (European time) of such system. Euroclear or Clearstream, as the case may be, will, if the transaction meets its settlement requirements, deliver instructions to its U.S. depositary to take action to effect final settlement on its behalf by delivering or receiving interests in the global securities through DTC, and making or receiving payment in accordance with normal procedures for same-day fund settlement. Participants in Euroclear or Clearstream may not deliver instructions directly to their respective U.S. depositaries.
Due to time zone differences, the securities accounts of a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream purchasing an interest in a global security from a direct participant in DTC will be credited, and any such crediting will be reported to the relevant participant in Euroclear or Clearstream, during the securities settlement processing day (which must be a business day for Euroclear or Clearstream) immediately following the settlement date of DTC. Cash received in Euroclear or Clearstream as a result of sales of interests in a global security by or through a participant in Euroclear or Clearstream to a direct participant in DTC will be received with value on the settlement date of DTC but will be
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available in the relevant Euroclear or Clearstream cash account only as of the business day for Euroclear or Clearstream following DTC’s settlement date.
Other
The information in this section of this prospectus concerning DTC, Clearstream, Euroclear and their respective book-entry systems has been obtained from sources that we believe to be reliable, but we do not take responsibility for this information. This information has been provided solely as a matter of convenience. The rules and procedures of DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear are solely within the control of those organizations and could change at any time. Neither we nor the trustee nor any agent of ours or of the trustee has any control over those entities and none of us takes any responsibility for their activities. You are urged to contact DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants directly to discuss those matters. In addition, although we expect that DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear will perform the foregoing procedures, none of them is under any obligation to perform or continue to perform such procedures and such procedures may be discontinued at any time. Neither we nor any agent of ours will have any responsibility for the performance or nonperformance by DTC, Clearstream and Euroclear or their respective participants of these or any other rules or procedures governing their respective operations.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We may sell the securities from time to time pursuant to underwritten public offerings, negotiated transactions, block trades or a combination of these methods or through underwriters or dealers, through agents and/or directly to one or more purchasers. The securities may be distributed from time to time in one or more transactions:
at a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;
at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;
at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or
at negotiated prices.
Each time that we sell securities covered by this prospectus, we will provide a prospectus supplement or supplements that will describe the method of distribution and set forth the terms and conditions of the offering of such securities, including the offering price of the securities and the proceeds to us, if applicable.
Offers to purchase the securities being offered by this prospectus may be solicited directly. Agents may also be designated to solicit offers to purchase the securities from time to time. Any agent involved in the offer or sale of our securities will be identified in a prospectus supplement.
If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, the securities will be sold to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.
If an underwriter is utilized in the sale of the securities being offered by this prospectus, an underwriting agreement will be executed with the underwriter at the time of sale and the name of any underwriter will be provided in the prospectus supplement that the underwriter will use to make resales of the securities to the public. In connection with the sale of the securities, we or the purchasers of securities for whom the underwriter may act as agent, may compensate the underwriter in the form of underwriting discounts or commissions. The underwriter may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters and/or commissions from the purchasers for which they may act as agent. Unless otherwise indicated in a prospectus supplement, an agent will be acting on a best efforts basis and a dealer will purchase securities as a principal, and may then resell the securities at varying prices to be determined by the dealer.
Any compensation paid to underwriters, dealers or agents in connection with the offering of the securities, and any discounts, concessions or commissions allowed by underwriters to participating dealers will be provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. Underwriters, dealers and agents participating in the distribution of the securities may be deemed to be underwriters within the meaning of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and any discounts and commissions received by them and any profit realized by them on resale of the securities may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions. We may enter into agreements to indemnify underwriters, dealers and agents against civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or to contribute to payments they may be required to make in respect thereof and to reimburse those persons for certain expenses.
Any common stock will be listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market, but any other securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. To facilitate the offering of securities, certain persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involve the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than were sold to them. In these circumstances, these persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by making purchases in the open market or by exercising their over-allotment option, if any. In addition, these persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to dealers participating in the offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the
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securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. These transactions may be discontinued at any time.
We may engage in at the market offerings into an existing trading market in accordance with Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act. In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties, or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement so indicates, in connection with those derivatives, the third parties may sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, including in short sale transactions. If so, the third party may use securities pledged by us or borrowed from us or others to settle those sales or to close out any related open borrowings of stock, and may use securities received from us in settlement of those derivatives to close out any related open borrowings of stock. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and, if not identified in this prospectus, will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement (or a post-effective amendment). In addition, we may otherwise loan or pledge securities to a financial institution or other third party that in turn may sell the securities short using this prospectus and an applicable prospectus supplement. Such financial institution or other third party may transfer its economic short position to investors in our securities or in connection with a concurrent offering of other securities.
The specific terms of any lock-up provisions in respect of any given offering will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement.
The underwriters, dealers and agents may engage in transactions with us, or perform services for us, in the ordinary course of business for which they receive compensation.
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LEGAL MATTERS
Latham & Watkins LLP will pass upon certain legal matters relating to the issuance and sale of the securities offered hereby on behalf of Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc. Additional legal matters may be passed upon for us or any underwriters, dealers or agents, by counsel that we will name in the applicable prospectus supplement.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, and the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, as set forth in their reports, which are incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s reports, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
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The information in this preliminary prospectus is not complete and may be changed. These securities may not be sold until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This preliminary prospectus is not an offer to sell nor does it seek an offer to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.
Subject to Completion, dated January 31, 2024.
PROSPECTUS
https://cdn.kscope.io/43d9084b1ab0526d152bdb71c760391a-logo1aa.jpg
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
$100,000,000
Common Stock
We have entered into an amended and restated sales agreement, or the Sales Agreement, with TD Cowen, relating to shares of our common stock offered by this prospectus. In accordance with the terms of such Sales Agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time through TD Cowen acting as our agent.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARQT.” On January 30, 2024 the last reported sale price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market was $5.87 per share.
Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus will be made in sales deemed to be an “at-the-market” equity offering as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. TD Cowen is not required to sell any specific amount of securities, but will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between TD Cowen and us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
The compensation to TD Cowen for sales of common stock sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement will be up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross proceeds of any shares of common stock sold under the Sales Agreement. In connection with the sale of the common stock on our behalf, TD Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation of TD Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have also agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to TD Cowen with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Please read “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus and under similar headings in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus before investing in our securities.
Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission not any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.
TD Cowen
The date of this prospectus is                 , 2024.



TABLE OF CONTENTS
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ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS
This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we have filed with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, or the SEC, utilizing a “shelf” registration process. By using a shelf registration statement, we may offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000 from time to time under this prospectus at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.
This prospectus describes the specific details of this offering and also adds to and updates information contained in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus. To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus, on the one hand, and the information contained in any document incorporated by reference in this prospectus, on the other hand, you should rely on the information in this prospectus. However, if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date-for example, a document incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement-the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement as our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since the earlier dates.
We have not, and TD Cowen has not, authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and TD Cowen take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and TD Cowen is not, making an offer to sell or soliciting an offer to buy our securities in any jurisdiction where an offer or solicitation is not authorized or in which the person making that offer or solicitation is not qualified to do so or to anyone to whom it is unlawful to make an offer or solicitation. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and in any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents to which we have referred you in the sections of this prospectus entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Information Incorporated by Reference.”
We are offering to sell, and seeking offers to buy, shares of common stock only in jurisdictions where offers and sales are permitted. The distribution of this prospectus and the offering of the common stock in certain jurisdictions may be restricted by law. Persons outside the United States who come into possession of this prospectus must inform themselves about, and observe any restrictions relating to, the offering of the common stock and the distribution of this prospectus outside the United States. This prospectus does not constitute, and may not be used in connection with, an offer to sell, or a solicitation of an offer to buy, any securities offered by this prospectus by any person in any jurisdiction in which it is unlawful for such person to make such an offer or solicitation.
When we refer to “Arcutis,” “we,” “our,” “us” and the “Company” in this prospectus, we mean Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., unless otherwise specified. When we refer to “you,” we mean the holders of common stock of the Company.
This prospectus includes trademarks, service marks and trade names owned by us or other companies. All trademarks, service marks and trade names included or incorporated by reference into this prospectus are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, trademarks and trade names referred to in this prospectus, including logos, artwork and other visual displays, may appear without the ® or TM symbols, but such references are not intended to indicate, in any way, that their respective owners will not assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, their rights thereto. We do not intend our use or display of other companies’ trade names or trademarks to imply a relationship with, or endorsement or sponsorship of us by, any other companies.
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PROSPECTUS SUMMARY
This summary provides a general overview of selected information and does not contain all of the information you should consider before buying our common stock. Therefore, you should read the entire prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering carefully, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, before deciding to invest in our common stock. Investors should carefully consider the information set forth under “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus and in the documents incorporated by reference into this prospectus.
Company Overview
We are a commercial-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on developing and commercializing treatments for dermatological diseases with high unmet medical needs. Our current portfolio is comprised of highly differentiated topical and systemic treatments with significant potential to treat immune-mediated dermatological diseases and conditions. We believe we have built the industry's leading platform for dermatologic product development and commercialization. Our strategy is to focus on validated biological targets, and to use our drug development platform and deep dermatology expertise to develop differentiated products that have the potential to address the major shortcomings of existing therapies in our targeted indications. We believe this strategy uniquely positions us to rapidly advance our goal of bridging the treatment innovation gap in dermatology, while maximizing our probability of technical success and financial resources.
Corporate Information
We were formed under the laws of the State of Delaware in June 2016 under the name Arcutis, Inc. and changed our name to Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc. in October 2019. Our principal executive offices are located at 3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, California 91361, and our telephone number is (805) 418-5006. Our website address is www.arcutis.com. The information contained on, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus and should not be considered a part of this prospectus.

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THE OFFERING
Common stock offered by usShares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000.
Shares of common stock to be outstanding immediately after this offering
Up to 112,318,819 shares, assuming sales of 17,035,775 shares of common stock are made in this offering at an offering price of $5.87 per share, which was the last reported sale price of shares of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on January 30, 2024. The actual number of shares that may be issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Plan of Distribution
“At-the-market” offering that may be made from time to time through or to our sales agent, TD Cowen, as agent. See “Plan of Distribution” on page 17.
Use of Proceeds
We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for general corporate purposes, and to fund the continued development of our multiple product candidate programs and commercial launch planning. See “Use of Proceeds” on page 9.
Risk Factors
Investing in our common stock involves significant risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page 5 of this prospectus and the other information included in, or incorporated by reference into, this prospectus for a discussion of certain factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in shares of our common stock.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol"ARQT"
The number of shares of common stock to be outstanding after this offering as shown above is based on 95,283,044 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2023 (after giving effect to the issuance of 33,425,000 shares of our common stock in an underwritten public offering in October 2023), and excludes:
8,228,270 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of September 30, 2023, with a weighted-average exercise price of $18.81 per share;
2,924,356 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units, or RSUs, outstanding as of September 30, 2023;
3,018,500 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding that were granted after September 30, 2023;
3,698 shares of unvested common stock subject to repurchase by us as of September 30, 2023;
1,487,426 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2020 Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Plan;
1,524,787 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the ESPP;
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915,425 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2022 Employment Inducement Incentive Plan;
7,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of our common stock issued in connection with an underwritten public offering in October 2023.
Except as otherwise indicated, all information in this prospectus assumes:
no repurchase by us of any shares of unvested common stock subject to repurchase;
no exercise of outstanding options or settlement of outstanding RSUs; and
no exercise of the pre-funded warrants referred to above.
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RISK FACTORS
Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should carefully review the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section titled “Risk Factors” in our most recent annual report on Form 10-K and in our subsequent reports on Form 10-Q and current reports on Form 8-K that are incorporated by reference into this prospectus, together with other information in this prospectus and the information and documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering before you make a decision to invest in our common stock. Each of the risk factors could adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition, as well as adversely affect the value of an investment in our common stock, and the occurrence of any of these risks might cause you to lose all or part of your investment. Additional risks not presently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial may also significantly impair our business operations. Please also read carefully the section below titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”
Risks Related to this Offering
If you purchase shares of our common stock in this offering, you may experience immediate and substantial dilution in the net tangible book value of your shares. In addition, we may issue additional equity or convertible debt securities in the future, which may result in additional dilution to you.
The offering price per share in this offering may exceed the net tangible book value per share of our common stock outstanding prior to this offering. The exercise or settlement of outstanding pre-funded warrants, stock options and RSUs would result in further dilution of your investment. See the section titled “Dilution” below for a more detailed illustration of the dilution you would incur if you participate in this offering. Because the sales of the shares offered hereby will be made directly into the market or in negotiated transactions, the prices at which we sell these shares will vary and these variations may be significant. Purchasers of the shares we sell, as well as our existing stockholders, will experience significant dilution if we sell shares at prices significantly below the price at which they invested. In addition, to the extent we need to raise additional capital in the future and we issue additional shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable for our common stock, our then existing stockholders may experience dilution and the new securities may have rights senior to those of our common stock offered in this offering.
We will have broad discretion in the use of proceeds from this offering and may invest or spend the proceeds in ways with which you do not agree and in ways that may not increase the value of your investment.
We will have broad discretion over the use of proceeds from this offering, including for any of the purposes described in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds,” and you will not have the opportunity as part of your investment decision to assess whether the net proceeds are being used appropriately. You may not agree with our decisions, and our use of the proceeds may not yield any return on your investment. Our failure to apply the proceeds from this offering effectively could compromise our ability to pursue our growth strategy and we might not be able to yield a significant return, if any, on our investment of these net proceeds. You will not have the opportunity to influence our decisions on how to use these net proceeds. Any of the foregoing could adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Future sales or issuances of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception of such sales, could depress the trading price of our common stock.
The sale of a substantial number of shares of our common stock or other equity-related securities in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. We may sell large quantities of our common stock at any time pursuant to this prospectus or in one or more separate offerings. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of common stock or other equity-related securities would have on the market price of our common stock.
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The actual number of shares we will issue under the Sales Agreement, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.
Subject to certain limitations in the Sales Agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to TD Cowen at any time throughout the term of the Sales Agreement. The number of shares that are sold by or to TD Cowen under the Sales Agreement will fluctuate based on the market price of the shares of common stock during the sales period and limits we set with TD Cowen. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares that will be ultimately issued.
The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.
Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices, and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.
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SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This prospectus, including the documents incorporated by reference herein, contains forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 concerning our business, operations and financial performance and condition, as well as our plans, objectives and expectations for our business operations and financial performance and condition. Any statements contained herein that are not statements of historical facts may be deemed to be forward-looking statements. In some cases, you can identify forward-looking statements by terminology such as “aim,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “believe,” “contemplate,” “continue,” “could,” “due,” “estimate,” “expect,” “goal,” “intend,” “may,” “objective,” “plan,” “predict,” “potential,” “positioned,” “seek,” “should,” “target,” “will,” “would,” and other similar expressions that are predictions or indicate future events and future trends, or the negative of these terms or other comparable terminology. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:
the success, cost, and timing of our plans to develop and commercialize immuno-dermatology drugs, including our current products, ZORYVE® roflumilast cream (ARQ-151) and roflumilast foam (ARQ-154), ARQ-234, ARQ-252, and ARQ-255 for indications including plaque psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, scalp psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, hand eczema, vitiligo, and alopecia areata;
the anticipated impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak on our ongoing and planned clinical trials and other business operations, including any potential delays, halts, or modifications to our clinical trials and other potential changes to our clinical development plans or business operations;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations, including funding necessary to complete further development and commercialization of our product candidates;
our ability to satisfy the conditions, covenants and obligations under our amended loan and security agreement with SLR Investment Corp.;
the timing of and our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approvals;
future agreements, if any, with third parties in connection with the commercialization of our product candidates;
the success, cost, and timing of our product candidate development activities and planned clinical trials;
the rate and degree of market acceptance and clinical utility of our product candidates;
the potential market size and the size of the patient populations for our product candidates, if approved for commercial uses;
the potential U.S. market sales for our product candidates, if approved for commercial use;
our commercialization, marketing, and manufacturing capabilities and strategy;
the success of competing therapies that are or may become available;
our ability to attract and retain key management and technical personnel;
our expectations regarding our ability to obtain, maintain, and enforce intellectual property protection for our product candidates;
our anticipated use of the net proceeds from this offering; and
our estimates regarding expenses, future revenue, capital requirements, and needs for additional financing.
You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual results may differ materially from what we expect as expressed or implied by our forward-looking statements. In light of the significant risks and uncertainties to which our forward-looking statements are subject, you should not place undue reliance on or regard these statements as a representation or warranty by us or any other person that we will achieve our objectives and plans in any specified timeframe, or at
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all. We discuss many of these risks in greater detail in the documents incorporated by reference herein, including under the heading “Risk Factors.” These forward-looking statements represent our estimates and assumptions only as of the dates of this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus, as applicable, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any sale of our common stock and, except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to update or revise publicly any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise after the date of this prospectus. For all forward-looking statements, we claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.
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USE OF PROCEEDS
We may issue and sell shares of our common stock having aggregate gross sales proceeds of up to $100.0 million from time to time. The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the Sales Agreement with TD Cowen as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for general corporate purposes, and to fund the continued development, approval and commercialization of our multiple programs. The amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including our development and commercialization efforts with respect to our product candidates, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We therefore cannot estimate with certainty the amount of net proceeds to be used for the purposes described above. We may find it necessary or advisable to use the net proceeds for other purposes, and we will have broad discretion in the application of the net proceeds. Pending the use of the net proceeds from this offering, we intend to invest the net proceeds in short term, investment-grade interest-bearing securities such as money market accounts, certificates of deposit, commercial paper, corporate bonds and guaranteed obligations of the U.S. government.
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DIVIDEND POLICY
We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain all available funds and any future earnings use in the operation of our business and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on our common stock in the foreseeable future. Any future determination to declare dividends will be made at the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on our financial condition, operating results, capital requirements, general business conditions and other factors that our board of directors may deem relevant.
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DILUTION
Our net tangible book value as of September 30, 2023 was $40.1 million, or $0.65 per share. Net tangible book value per share is determined by dividing our total tangible assets, less total liabilities, by the number of shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2023. Dilution with respect to net tangible book value per share represents the difference between the amount per share paid by purchasers of shares of common stock in this offering and the net tangible book value per share of our common stock immediately after this offering.
Our pro forma net tangible book value as of September 30, 2023 was $135.9 million, or $1.43 per share. Pro forma net tangible book value per share represents the amount of our net tangible book value, divided by 95,283,044 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2020 after giving effect to the issuance and sale of 33,425,000 shares of common stock in an underwritten public offering in October 2023 and our receipt of approximately $95.8 million in net proceeds therefrom.
After giving effect to the sale of 17,035,775 shares of our common stock in this offering at an assumed offering price of $5.87 per share, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq on January 30, 2024, and after deducting offering commissions and estimated offering expenses payable by us, our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value as of September 30, 2023 would have been $232.7 million, or $2.07 per share. This represents an immediate increase of $0.64 per share to pro forma net tangible book value for existing stockholders and immediate dilution of $3.80 per share to investors purchasing our common stock in this offering. The following table illustrates this dilution on a per share basis:
Assumed public offering price per share$5.87 
Net tangible book value per share of as September 30, 2023
$0.65 
Increase in net tangible book value attributable to the pro forma transaction described above
0.78 
Pro forma net tangible book value per share at September 30, 2023
1.43 
Increase in pro forma net tangible book value per share attributable to new investors
0.64 
Pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after giving effect to this offering
2.07 
Dilution per share to new investors$3.80 
The shares sold in this offering, if any, will be sold from time to time at various prices. An increase of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.87 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million is sold at that price, would cause our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $2.12 per share and would increase the dilution to new investors to $4.75 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us. A decrease of $1.00 per share in the price at which the shares are sold from the assumed offering price of $5.87 per share shown in the table above, assuming all of our common stock in the aggregate amount of $100.0 million is sold at that price, would cause our pro forma as adjusted net tangible book value per share after the offering to be $2.01 per share and would decrease the dilution to new investors to $2.86 per share, after deducting commissions and estimated aggregate offering expenses payable by us.
To the extent that any outstanding pre-funded warrants, options or RSUs are exercised or settled, new options are issued, or we issue additional shares of common stock or other equity or convertible debt securities in the future, there will be further dilution to investors participating in this offering.
The above discussion and table are based on 95,283,044 shares of our common stock outstanding as of September 30, 2023 (after giving effect to the issuance of 33,425,000 shares of our common stock in an underwritten public offering in October 2023), and excludes:
8,228,270 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding as of September 30, 2023, with a weighted-average exercise price of $18.81 per share;
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2,924,356 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting and settlement of restricted stock units, or RSUs, outstanding as of September 30, 2023;
3,018,500 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of options outstanding that were granted after September 30, 2023;
3,698 shares of unvested common stock subject to repurchase by us as of September 30, 2023;
1,487,426 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2020 Equity Incentive Plan, or 2020 Plan, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the 2020 Plan;
1,524,787 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2020 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP, as well as any automatic increases in the number of shares of our common stock reserved for future issuance under the ESPP;
915,425 shares of common stock that were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2023 under our 2022 Employment Inducement Incentive Plan; and
7,500,000 shares of common stock issuable upon the exercise of pre-funded warrants to purchase shares of our common stock issued in connection with an underwritten public offering in October 2023.
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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK
The following description of our capital stock is not complete and may not contain all the information you should consider before investing in our capital stock. This description is summarized from, and qualified in its entirety by reference to, our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws, which have been publicly filed with the SEC. See “Where You Can Find More Information; Incorporation by Reference.”
Our authorized capital stock consists of 300,000,000 shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, and 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share.
Common Stock
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “ARQT.”
Dividend Rights
Subject to preferences that may apply to any shares of preferred stock outstanding at the time, the holders of our common stock are entitled to receive dividends out of funds legally available if our board of directors, in its discretion, determines to issue dividends and then only at the times and in the amounts that our board of directors may determine.
Voting Rights
Holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of stockholders. We have not provided for cumulative voting for the election of directors in our restated certificate of incorporation, which means that holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock will be able to elect all of our directors. Our restated certificate of incorporation establishes a classified board of directors, to be divided into three classes with staggered three-year terms. Only one class of directors will be elected at each annual meeting of our stockholders, with the other classes continuing for the remainder of their respective three-year terms.
No Preemptive or Similar Rights
Our common stock is not entitled to preemptive rights, and is not subject to conversion, redemption or sinking fund provisions.
Right to Receive Liquidation Distributions
Upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding-up, the assets legally available for distribution to our stockholders would be distributable ratably among the holders of our common stock and any participating preferred stock outstanding at that time, subject to prior satisfaction of all outstanding debt and liabilities and the preferential rights of and the payment of liquidation preferences, if any, on any outstanding shares of preferred stock.
Fully Paid and Nonassessable
All outstanding shares of common stock are, and the shares of common stock to be issued in this offering will be, fully paid and nonassessable.
Transfer Agent
The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company. The transfer agent’s address is 1110 Centre Pointe Curve, Suite 101, Mendota Heights, MN 55120-4101.
Preferred Stock
Under the terms of our restated certificate of incorporation, our board of directors is authorized, subject to limitations prescribed by Delaware law, to issue preferred stock in one or more series, to establish from time to time the number of shares to be included in each series and to fix the designation, powers, preferences and rights of the shares of each series and any of their qualifications, limitations or restrictions, in each case without further vote or
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action by our stockholders. Our board of directors is also authorized to increase or decrease the number of shares of any series of preferred stock, but not below the number of shares of that series then outstanding, without any further vote or action by our stockholders. Our board of directors may authorize the issuance of preferred stock with voting or conversion rights that could adversely affect the voting power or other rights of the holders of our common stock. The issuance of preferred stock, while providing flexibility in connection with possible acquisitions and other corporate purposes, could, among other things, have the effect of delaying, deferring or preventing a change in control of our company and might adversely affect the market price of our common stock and the voting and other rights of the holders of our common stock. We have no current plan to issue any shares of preferred stock.
Pre-Funded Warrants
In October 2023, in an underwritten public offering of our common stock, we issued and sold, in lieu of common stock for certain investors, pre-funded warrants to purchase 7,500,000 shares of our common stock at a public offering price of $2.4999 per underlying share of common stock. The exercise price of the warrants is $0.0001 per underlying share of common stock. The pre-funded warrants are exercisable at any time.
Anti-Takeover Provisions
The provisions of Delaware General Corporation Law, or DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws could have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another person from acquiring control of our company. These provisions, which are summarized below, may have the effect of discouraging takeover bids. They are also designed, in part, to encourage persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate first with our board of directors. We believe that the benefits of increased protection of our potential ability to negotiate with an unfriendly or unsolicited acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging a proposal to acquire us because negotiation of these proposals could result in an improvement of their terms.
Delaware Law
We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. Under Section 203, we would generally be prohibited from engaging in any business combination with any interested stockholder for a period of three years following the time that this stockholder became an interested stockholder unless:
prior to the date of the transaction, the board of directors of the corporation approved either the business combination or the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;
upon consummation of the transaction that resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and by employee stock plans in which employee participants do not have the right to determine confidentially whether shares held subject to the plan will be tendered in a tender or exchange offer; or
at or subsequent to the date of the transaction, the business combination is approved by the board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of stockholders, and not by written consent, by the affirmative vote of at least 66 2/3% of the outstanding voting stock that is not owned by the interested stockholder.
Under Section 203, a “business combination” includes:
any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;
any sale, transfer, pledge or other disposition of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation involving the interested stockholder;
any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder, subject to limited exceptions;
any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or
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the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.
In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as an entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by such entity or person.
Restated Certificate of Incorporation and Restated Bylaw Provisions
Our restated certificate of incorporation and our restated bylaws include a number of provisions that could deter hostile takeovers or delay or prevent changes in control of our company, including the following:
Board of Directors Vacancies. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws authorize only our board of directors to fill vacant directorships, including newly created seats. In addition, the number of directors constituting our board of directors is permitted to be set only by a resolution adopted by a majority vote of our entire board of directors. These provisions would prevent a stockholder from increasing the size of our board of directors and then gaining control of our board of directors by filling the resulting vacancies with its own nominees. This makes it more difficult to change the composition of our board of directors but promotes continuity of management.
Classified Board. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws provide that our board of directors is classified into three classes of directors, each with staggered three-year terms. A third party may be discouraged from making a tender offer or otherwise attempting to obtain control of us as it is more difficult and time consuming for stockholders to replace a majority of the directors on a classified board of directors.
Stockholder Action; Special Meetings of Stockholders. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that our stockholders may not take action by written consent, but may only take action at annual or special meetings of our stockholders. As a result, a holder controlling a majority of our capital stock would not be able to amend our restated bylaws or remove directors without holding a meeting of our stockholders called in accordance with our restated bylaws. Further, our restated bylaws provide that special meetings of our stockholders may be called only by a majority of our board of directors, the chairman of our board of directors, our Chief Executive Officer or our President, thus prohibiting a stockholder from calling a special meeting. These provisions might delay the ability of our stockholders to force consideration of a proposal or for stockholders controlling a majority of our capital stock to take any action, including the removal of directors.
Advance Notice Requirements for Stockholder Proposals and Director Nominations. Our restated bylaws provide advance notice procedures for stockholders seeking to bring business before our annual meeting of stockholders or to nominate candidates for election as directors at our annual meeting of stockholders. Our restated bylaws also specify certain requirements regarding the form and content of a stockholder’s notice. These provisions might preclude our stockholders from bringing matters before our annual meeting of stockholders or from making nominations for directors at our annual meeting of stockholders if the proper procedures are not followed. We expect that these provisions might also discourage or deter a potential acquirer from conducting a solicitation of proxies to elect the acquirer’s own slate of directors or otherwise attempting to obtain control of our company.
No Cumulative Voting. The DGCL provides that stockholders are not entitled to the right to cumulate votes in the election of directors unless a corporation’s certificate of incorporation provides otherwise. Our restated certificate of incorporation and restated bylaws do not provide for cumulative voting.
Directors Removed Only for Cause. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that stockholders may remove directors only for cause and only by the affirmative vote of the holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.
Amendment of Charter Provisions. Any amendment of the above provisions in our restated certificate of incorporation require approval by holders of at least two-thirds of our outstanding common stock.
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Issuance of Undesignated Preferred Stock. Our board of directors has the authority, without further action by the stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of undesignated preferred stock with rights and preferences, including voting rights, designated from time to time by our board of directors. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock would enable our board of directors to render more difficult or to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by merger, tender offer, proxy contest or other means.
Choice of Forum. Our restated certificate of incorporation provides that, to the fullest extent permitted by law, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the exclusive forum for any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf; any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty; any action asserting a claim against us arising pursuant to the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation or our restated bylaws; or any action asserting a claim against us that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine. The enforceability of similar choice of forum provisions in other companies’ certificates of incorporation has been challenged in legal proceedings, and it is possible that a court could find these types of provisions to be inapplicable or unenforceable. This exclusive forum provision does not apply to suits brought to enforce a duty or liability created by the Exchange Act. It could apply, however, to a suit that falls within one or more of the categories enumerated in the exclusive forum provision and asserts claims under the Securities Act, inasmuch as Section 22 of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, creates concurrent jurisdiction for federal and state courts over all suits brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Securities Act or the rules and regulations thereunder. There is uncertainty as to whether a court would enforce such provision with respect to claims under the Securities Act, and our stockholders will not be deemed to have waived our compliance with the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations thereunder.
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PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION
We have entered into a Sales Agreement with TD Cowen, under which we may issue and sell from time to time up to $100,000,000 of our common stock through or to TD Cowen as our sales agent. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.
TD Cowen will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and TD Cowen. We will designate the maximum amount of common stock to be sold through TD Cowen on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum amount together with TD Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions of the Sales Agreement, TD Cowen will use its commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the shares of common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct TD Cowen not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above the price designated by us in any such instruction. TD Cowen or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through TD Cowen under the Sales Agreement upon proper notice to the other party. TD Cowen and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the Sales Agreement, to terminate the Sales Agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time.
The aggregate compensation payable to TD Cowen as sales agent will be up to 3.0% of the gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the Sales Agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse TD Cowen up to $50,000 of TD Cowen’s actual outside legal expenses incurred by TD Cowen in connection with this offering, and for certain other expenses, including TD Cowen's FINRA counsel fees in an amount up to $15,000. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding commissions payable to TD Cowen under the Sales Agreement, will be approximately $161,000.
The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory, or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.
TD Cowen will provide written confirmation to us following the close of trading on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on each day in which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the Sales Agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us.
We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through TD Cowen under the Sales Agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to TD Cowen in connection with the sales of common stock.
Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.
In connection with the sales of our common stock on our behalf, TD Cowen will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to TD Cowen will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed in the Sales Agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to TD Cowen against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act. As sales agent, TD Cowen will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.
Our common stock is listed on the Nasdaq Global Select Market and trades under the symbol “ARQT.” The transfer agent of our common stock is Equiniti Trust Company.
TD Cowen and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide, various investment banking and other financial services for us for which services they have received and, may in the future receive, customary fees.
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LEGAL MATTERS
The validity of the common stock offered by this prospectus will be passed upon by Latham & Watkins LLP, Menlo Park, California. Cowen and Company, LLC is being represented in connection with this offering by Cooley LLP, New York, New York.
EXPERTS
Ernst & Young LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, has audited our financial statements included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, and the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting as of December 31, 2022, as set forth in their report, which is incorporated by reference in this prospectus and elsewhere in the registration statement. Our financial statements are incorporated by reference in reliance on Ernst & Young LLP’s report, given on their authority as experts in accounting and auditing.
WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION
We have filed with the SEC a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, of which this prospectus form a part. For further information about us and the securities we are offering under this prospectus, you should refer to the registration statement and the exhibits and schedules filed with the registration statement. With respect to the statements contained in this prospectus regarding the contents of any agreement or any other document, in each instance, the statement is qualified in all respects by the complete text of the agreement or document, a copy of which has been filed as an exhibit to the registration statement.
We file reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC under the Exchange Act. The SEC maintains an Internet website that contains reports, proxy statements and other information about issuers, like us, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. We maintain a website at www.arcutis.com. Information contained in or accessible through our website does not constitute a part of this prospectus.
INCORPORATION OF CERTAIN INFORMATION BY REFERENCE
The SEC’s rules allow us to “incorporate by reference” information into this prospectus, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to another document filed separately with the SEC. The information incorporated by reference is deemed to be part of this prospectus, and subsequent information that we file with the SEC will automatically update and supersede that information. Any statement contained in this prospectus or a previously filed document incorporated by reference will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in this prospectus or a subsequently filed document incorporated by reference modifies or replaces that statement.
This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents set forth below that have previously been filed with the SEC:
Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Annual Report on Form 10-K/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023.
The information specifically incorporated by reference into our Annual Report on Form 10-K from our Definitive Proxy Statement on Schedule 14A, filed with the SEC on April 18, 2023.
Our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, filed with the SEC on May 9, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023; our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended June 30, 2023, filed with the SEC on August 8, 2023, and Amendment No. 1 to such Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q/A, filed with the SEC on September 15, 2023; and our Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2023, filed with the SEC on November 3, 2023.
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Our Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on May 24, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02), June 5, 2023, August 14, 2023, August 18, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02) (as amended September 7, 2023), September 27, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 5.02), October 19, 2023 (solely with respect to Item 8.01 and Item 9.01), October 23, 2023, December 18, 2023 and January 11, 2024.
The description of our securities registered pursuant to Section 12 of the Exchange Act contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed with the SEC on February 28, 2023, including any amendment or report filed for the purpose of updating such description.
All reports and other documents we subsequently file pursuant to Section 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, which we refer to as the “Exchange Act” in this prospectus, prior to the termination of this offering, including all such documents we may file with the SEC after the date of the initial registration statement and prior to the effectiveness of the registration statement, but excluding any information furnished to, rather than filed with, the SEC, will also be incorporated by reference into this prospectus and deemed to be part of this prospectus from the date of the filing of such reports and documents.
You may request a free copy of any of the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus by writing or telephoning us at the following address:
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
Attn: Head of Investor Relations
3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300
Westlake Village, CA 91361
Telephone: (805) 418-5006
Exhibits to the filings will not be sent, however, unless those exhibits have specifically been incorporated by reference in this prospectus or any accompanying prospectus supplement.
19




https://cdn.kscope.io/43d9084b1ab0526d152bdb71c760391a-logo1aa.jpg
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
$100,000,000
Common Stock






PROSPECTUS











TD Cowen
            , 2024




PART II
INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS
Item 14.    Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution
The following is an estimate of the expenses (all of which are to be paid by the registrant) that we may incur in connection with the securities being registered hereby.
SEC registration fee$46,975 
*
Nasdaq supplemental listing fee$
(1)
Printing expenses$
(1)
Legal fees and expenses$
(1)
Accounting fees and expenses$
(1)
Blue Sky, qualification fees and expenses$
(1)
Transfer agent and registrar fees and expenses$
(1)
Trustee fees and expenses$
(1)
Depositary fees and expenses$
(1)
Warrant agent fees and expenses$
(1)
Miscellaneous$
(1)
Total$
(1)
________________
*    This amount excludes a registration fee amount of $8,918.65 associated with $81,747,499 of shares of common stock previously registered on the registrant's Registration Statement on Form S-3ASR (File No. 333-252612) filed on February 1, 2021 and which remain unsold under the registrant’s “at the market offering” sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the amount of such registration fee associated with the offering of the unsold securities will be carried forward to be applied to the unsold securities registered under this registration statement and no additional filing fee will be due with respect to the unsold securities in connection with the filing of this registration statement.

(1)These fees are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly cannot be estimated at this time.
Item 15.    Indemnification of Directors and Officers
Subsection (a) of Section 145 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, or the DGCL, empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or who is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe the person’s conduct was unlawful.
Subsection (b) of Section 145 empowers a corporation to indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that the person acted in any of the capacities set forth above, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by the person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if the person acted in good faith and in a manner the person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in
II-1


which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.
Section 145 further provides that to the extent a director or officer of a corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in subsections (a) and (b) of Section 145, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith; that indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which the indemnified party may be entitled; and the indemnification provided for by Section 145 shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of such person’s heirs, executors and administrators. Section 145 also empowers the corporation to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of his status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liabilities under Section 145.
Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL provides that a corporation’s certificate of incorporation may contain a provision eliminating or limiting the personal liability of a director to the corporation or its stockholders for monetary damages for breach of fiduciary duty as a director; provided that such provision shall not eliminate or limit the liability of a director (i) for any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to the corporation or its stockholders, (ii) for acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law, (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL, or (iv) for any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
Any underwriting agreement or distribution agreement that the registrant enters into with any underwriters or agents involved in the offering or sale of any securities registered hereby may require such underwriters or dealers to indemnify the registrant, some or all of its directors and officers and its controlling persons, if any, for specified liabilities, which may include liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
As permitted by the DGCL, our restated certificate of incorporation contains provisions that eliminate the personal liability of our directors for monetary damages for any breach of fiduciary duties as a director, except liability for the following: (i) any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders; (ii) acts or omissions not in good faith or that involve intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law; (iii) under Section 174 of the DGCL (regarding unlawful dividends and stock purchases); or (iv) any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.
As permitted by the DGCL, our restated bylaws provide that: (i) we are required to indemnify our directors and executive officers to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to limited exceptions; (ii) we may indemnify our other employees and agents as set forth in the DGCL; (iii) we are required to advance expenses, as incurred, to our directors and executive officers in connection with a legal proceeding to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, subject to limited exceptions; and (iv) the rights conferred in the restated bylaws are not exclusive.
We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and certain of our officers. These indemnification agreements may require us, among other things, to indemnify our directors and officers against certain liabilities which may arise by reason of their status as directors, officers or certain other employees.
We maintain a general liability insurance policy that covers certain liabilities of directors and officers of our corporation arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers.
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Item 16.    Exhibits
Exhibit
Number
Description
1.1*Form of Underwriting Agreement.
1.2
3.1
3.2
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4*Form of Specimen Certificate Representing Preferred Stock.
4.5
4.6*Form of Note.
4.7*Form of Deposit Agreement.
4.8*Form of Warrant.
4.9*Form of Warrant Agreement.
4.10*Form of Purchase Contract Agreement.
4.11*Form of Unit Agreement.
5.1
23.1
23.2
24.1
25.1**Statement of Eligibility of Trustee on Form T-1 under the Indenture.
107
__________________
*To be filed by amendment or incorporated by reference in connection with the offering of the securities.
**To be filed in accordance with the requirements of Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.
Item 17.    Undertakings
(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:
(1)To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:
(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933;
(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of the registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in the registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in
II-3


the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the "Calculation of Registration Fee" table in the effective registration statement; and
(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in the registration statement or any material change to such information in the registration statement;
provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii), and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the SEC by the registrant pursuant to section 13 or section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 that are incorporated by reference in the registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is a part of the registration statement.
(2)That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(3)To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.
(5)That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser:
(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and
(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii), or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.
(6)That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act of 1933 to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:
The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of
II-4


any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:
(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;
(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;
(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and
(iv)Any other communications that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.
(b)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act of 1933, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.
(h)Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act of 1933 may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.
(j)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act, or the Act, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the SEC under section 305(b)(2) of the Act.
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SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, the registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the City of Westlake Village, California, on January 31, 2024.
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:/s/ Todd Franklin Watanabe
Todd Franklin Watanabe
President and Chief Executive Officer
POWER OF ATTORNEY
Each of the undersigned officers and directors of the registrant hereby severally constitutes and appoints Todd Franklin Watanabe and John W. Smither, and each of them singly (with full power to each of them to act alone), as his or her true and lawful attorneys-in-fact and agents, with full power of substitution and resubstitution in each of them, for him or her and in his or her name, place and stead, and in any and all capacities, to file and sign any and all amendments, including post-effective amendments, to this registration statement and any other registration statement for the same offering that is to be effective under Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act of 1933, and to file the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting unto said attorneys-in-fact and agents, and each of them, full power and authority to do and perform each and every act and thing requisite and necessary to be done in connection therewith and about the premises as fully to all intents and purposes as he or she might or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys-in-fact and agents, or their substitute or substitutes, may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof. This power of attorney shall be governed by and construed with the laws of the State of Delaware and applicable federal securities laws.
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, this registration statement has been signed below by the following persons on behalf of the registrant in the capacities and on the dates indicated.
SIGNATURETITLEDATE
/s/ Todd Franklin Watanabe
President, Chief Executive Officer and Director (Principal Executive Officer)
January 31, 2024
Todd Franklin Watanabe
/s/ John W. Smither
Chief Financial Officer (Principal Accounting and Financial Officer)
January 31, 2024
John W. Smither
/s/ Patrick J. Heron
Director, Chair
January 31, 2024
Patrick J. Heron
/s/ Bhaskar Chaudhuri
Director
January 31, 2024
Bhaskar Chaudhuri, Ph.D
/s/ Terrie Curran
Director
January 31, 2024
Terrie Curran
/s/ Halley E. Gilbert
Director
January 31, 2024
Halley E. Gilbert
/s/ Neha Krishnamohan
Director
January 31, 2024
Neha Krishnamohan
/s/ Keith Leonard
Director
January 31, 2024
Keith Leonard
/s/ Sue-Jean Lin
Director
January 31, 2024
Sue-Jean Lin
/s/ Howard G. Welgus
Director
January 31, 2024
Howard G. Welgus, M.D.




Document
Exhibit 107
Calculation of Filing Fee Table
Form S-3
(Form Type)
Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc.
(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)
Table 1: Newly Registered and Carry Forward Securities
Filing Fee
Previously
Paid In
Connection with
Unsold
Securities
to be
Carried
Forward
Security Type
Security Class Title
Fee Calculation or Carry Forward Rule
Amount Registered
Proposed Maximum Offering Price Per Unit
Maximum Aggregate
Offering Price
Fee Rate
Amount of Registration Fee
Carry Forward Form
Type
Carry
Forward
File
Number
Carry
Forward
Initial
Effective
Date
Newly Registered Securities
Fees to Be PaidEquity
Common Stock, par value
$0.0001 per share
Equity
Preferred Stock, par value
$0.0001 per share
DebtDebt Securities
OtherDepositary Shares
OtherWarrants
OtherPurchase Contracts
OtherUnits
Unallocated (Universal) Shelf__457(o)
(1)
(2)
$300,000,0000.0001476$44,280.00
Equity
Common Stock, par value
$0.0001 per share
457(o)
(3)
$18,252,5010.0001476$2,694.07
Fees Previously PaidN/A
N/A
N/AN/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Carry Forward Securities
Carry Forward SecuritiesEquity
Common Stock, par value
$0.0001 per share
415(a)(6)(3)(4)$81,747,4990.0001091S-3ASR333-
252612
February 1, 2021$8,918.65
Total Offering Amounts
$400,000,000$46,974.07
Total Fees Previously Paid
Total Fee Offsets
Net Fee Due
$46,974.07
(1)An indeterminate number of securities or aggregate principal amount, as applicable, is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices and, in addition, an indeterminate number of securities is being registered as may be issued from time to time upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock or debt securities that provide for conversion or exchange, upon exercise of warrants, or pursuant to any anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. Includes rights to acquire common stock or preferred stock of the Company under any shareholder rights plan then in effect, if applicable under the terms of any such plan.



(2)The proposed maximum offering price per class of security will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with the issuance by the Registrant of the securities registered hereunder and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to Instruction 2.A.iii.b of the Instructions to the Calculation of Filing Fee Tables and related disclosure on Form S-3.
(3)An indeterminate number of shares of common stock is being registered as may from time to time be offered at unspecified prices.
(4)The Registrant previously paid registration fees of $10,910.00 in connection with the filing of a prospectus supplement, dated May 6, 2021, to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-3ASR (File No. 333-252612) filed on February 1, 2021 (the “Prior Registration Statement”). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (“Rule 415(a)(6)”), the securities registered pursuant to this registration statement include $81,747,499 of shares of common stock previously registered on the Prior Registration Statement and which remain unsold under the Registrant’s “at the market offering” sales agreement with Cowen and Company, LLC (the “Unsold Securities”). Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the registration fee amount of $8,918.65 associated with the offering of the Unsold Securities (based on the filing fee rate in effect at the time of the filing of the prospectus supplement to the Prior Registration Statement) is hereby carried forward to be applied to the Unsold Securities registered hereunder, and no additional filing fee is due with respect to the Unsold Securities in connection with the filing of this registration statement. To the extent that, after the filing date hereof and prior to the effectiveness of this registration statement, the Registrant sells any Unsold Securities pursuant to the Prior Registration Statement, the Registrant will identify in a pre-effective amendment to this registration statement the updated amount of Unsold Securities from the Prior Registration Statement to be included in this registration statement pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) and any updated amount of new securities to be registered on this registration statement. Pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6), the offering of securities under the Prior Registration Statement will be deemed terminated as of the date of effectiveness of this registration statement.

Document
Exhibit 1.2
Execution Version
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
$100,000,000 SHARES OF
COMMON STOCK
PAR VALUE $0.0001 PER SHARE
AMENDED AND RESTATED SALES AGREEMENT
January 31, 2024
Cowen and Company, LLC
599 Lexington Avenue
New York, NY 10022
Ladies and Gentlemen:
Reference is made to that certain Sales Agreement, entered into as of May 6, 2021 (the “Original Sales Agreement”), by and between Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”), as sales agent. The Company and Cowen now intend to enter into this Amended and Restated Sales Agreement (this “Agreement”) to amend and restate the terms of the Original Sales Agreement in its entirety. Therefore, the Company confirms its agreement with Cowen as follows:
1.Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell to or through Cowen, acting as agent and/or principal, shares (the “Placement Shares”) of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share (the “Common Stock”), having an aggregate offering price of up to $100,000,000. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the number of shares of Common Stock issued and sold under this Agreement shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and Cowen shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Common Stock through Cowen will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) filed by the Company and which will be declared effective by the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”), although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to use the Registration Statement (as defined below) to issue the Common Stock.
The Company will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3 , including a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”). The Company has prepared a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Placement Shares (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of



such registration statement. The Company has furnished to Cowen, for use by Cowen, copies of the prospectus included as part of such registration statement, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, relating to the Placement Shares. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, and any post-effective amendment thereto, as amended when it became effective, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or 462(b) of the Securities Act, or any subsequent registration statement on Form S-3 filed pursuant to Rule 415(a)(6) under the Securities Act by the Company with respect to the Placement Shares, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement or any additional prospectus supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus,” as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is consented to by Cowen, hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus,” (ii) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (iii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.” Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents incorporated by reference therein, and any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing after the execution hereof of any document with the Commission deemed to be incorporated by reference therein. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or to any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include any copy filed with the Commission pursuant to the Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system (“EDGAR”).
2.Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell the Placement Shares hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify Cowen by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires the Placement Shares to be sold, which shall at a minimum include the number of shares of Placement Shares to be issued, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters necessary is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice shall originate from any of the individuals from the Company set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such schedule), and shall be addressed to each of the individuals from Cowen set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be amended from time to time in accordance herewith. The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by Cowen unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, Cowen declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, (ii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares have been sold, (iii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole
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discretion, (iv) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice with parameters superseding those on the earlier dated Placement Notice, or (v) this Agreement has been terminated under the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to Cowen in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor Cowen will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to Cowen and Cowen does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control.
3.Sale of Placement Shares by Cowen. Subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, upon the Company’s delivery of a Placement Notice, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended, or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, Cowen, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Stock Market, Inc. (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the amount specified in such Placement Notice, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of such Placement Notice. Cowen will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number of Placement Shares sold on such day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold, and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. In the event the Company engages Cowen for a sale of Placement Shares that would constitute a “block” within the meaning of Rule 10b-18(a)(5) under the Exchange Act (a “Block Sale”), the Company will provide Cowen, at Cowen’s request and upon reasonable advance notice to the Company, on or prior to the Settlement Date (as defined below), the opinions of counsel, accountant’s letter and officers’ certificates set forth in Section 8 hereof, each dated the Settlement Date, and such other documents and information as Cowen shall reasonably request. Cowen may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) of the Securities Act, including without limitation sales made through Nasdaq or on any other existing trading market for the Common Stock. Cowen may sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions only if expressly authorized by the Company in a Placement Notice. Cowen shall not purchase Placement Shares for its own account as principal unless expressly authorized to do so by the Company in a Placement Notice. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that Cowen will be successful in selling Placement Shares, and (ii) Cowen will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by Cowen to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Section 3. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Company’s Common Stock is purchased and sold on the principal market on which the Common Stock is listed or quoted.
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Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, the Company shall not offer, sell or deliver, or request the offer or sale, of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and, by notice to Cowen given by telephone (confirmed promptly by email), shall cancel any instructions for the offer or sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to offer or sell any Placement Shares, (i) during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, or (ii) at any time from and including the date on which the Company shall issue a press release containing, or shall otherwise publicly announce, its earnings, revenues or other results of operations (an “Earnings Announcement”) through and including the time that the Company files a Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q or an Annual Report on Form 10-K that includes consolidated financial statements as of and for the same period or periods, as the case may be, covered by such Earnings Announcement.
4.Suspension of Sales.
(a)The Company or Cowen may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by verifiable facsimile transmission or email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. While a suspension is in effect any obligation under Sections 7(m), 7(n), and 7(o) with respect to the delivery of certificates, opinions, or comfort letters to Cowen, shall be waived, provided, however, that the Company shall deliver such certificates, opinions and comfort letters if such suspension is revoked prior to the next occurring Bring-Down Date. Each of the parties agrees that no such notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other unless it is made to one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto, as such schedule may be amended from time to time.
(b)If either Cowen or the Company has reason to believe that the exemptive provisions set forth in Rule 101(c)(1) of Regulation M under the Exchange Act are not satisfied with respect to the Common Stock, it shall promptly notify the other party, and Cowen may, at its sole discretion, suspend sales of the Placement Shares under this Agreement.
(c)Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Registration Statement is no longer effective under the Securities Act, the Company shall promptly notify Cowen, the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares, and Cowen shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.
5.Settlement.
(a)Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second (2nd) Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date” and the first such settlement date, the “First Delivery Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate sales price received by Cowen at which such Placement Shares were sold, after
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deduction for (i) Cowen’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to Cowen hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) (Expenses) hereof, and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.
(b)Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer the Placement Shares being sold by crediting Cowen’s or its designee’s account (provided Cowen shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto which in all cases shall be freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, Cowen will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on, or prior to, the Settlement Date. Cowen will be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. The Company agrees that if the Company, or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized Placement Shares on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by Cowen to provide instructions for delivery), the Company agrees that in addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) (Indemnification and Contribution) hereto, it will (i) hold Cowen harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or reasonable and documented expense (including reasonable and documented legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company and (ii) pay to Cowen (without duplication) any commission, discount, or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default.
6.Representations and Warranties of the Company. Except as disclosed in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, the Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, Cowen that, unless such representation, warranty or agreement specifies otherwise, as of (i) the date of this Agreement, (ii) each Time of Sale (as defined below), (iii) each Settlement Date, and (iv) each Bring-Down Date (as defined below) (each date included in (i) through (iv), a “Representation Date”):
(a)The Registration Statement and any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement have been or will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the delivery of any Placement Notice by the Company. The Company has complied, to the Commission’s satisfaction, with all requests of the Commission for additional or supplemental information. No stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, any post-effective amendment thereto or any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement is in effect and no proceedings for such purpose have been instituted or are pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, contemplated or threatened by the Commission. The Company meets the requirements for use of Form S-3 under the Securities Act. The sale of the Placement Shares hereunder meets the requirements or General Instruction I.B.1 of Form S-3.
(b)The Prospectus when filed complied and, as amended or supplemented, if applicable, will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act. Each of the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any post-effective
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amendments or supplements thereto, at the time it became effective or its date, as applicable, complied and as of each Representation Date, complied and will comply in all material respects with the Securities Act and did not and, as of each Representation Date, did not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading. The Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, as of its date, did not and, as of each Representation Date, will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. The representations and warranties set forth in the two immediately preceding sentences do not apply to statements in or omissions from the Registration Statement, any Rule 462(b) Registration Statement, or any post-effective amendment thereto, or the Prospectus, or any amendments or supplements thereto, made in reliance upon and in conformity with information relating to Agent’s Information (as defined below). There are no contracts or other documents required to be described in the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement which have not been described or filed as required. As used herein, “Time of Sale” means with respect to each offering of Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement, the time of Cowen’s initial entry into contracts with purchasers for the sale of such Placement Shares.
(c)The Company has delivered to Cowen one complete copy of the Registration Statement and a copy of each consent and certificate of experts filed as a part thereof, and conformed copies of the Registration Statement (without exhibits) and the Prospectus, as amended or supplemented, in such quantities and at such places as Cowen has reasonably requested. The Registration Statement, the Prospectus and any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (to the extent any such Permitted Free Writing Prospectus was required to be filed with the Commission) delivered to Cowen for use in connection with the public offering of the Placement Shares contemplated herein have been and will be identical to the versions of such documents transmitted to the Commission for filing via EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T.
(d)Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Prospectus, the Company has not, (i) sustained any material loss or interference with its business from fire, explosion, flood or other calamity, whether or not covered by insurance, or from any labor dispute or court or governmental action, order or decree or (ii) entered into any transaction or agreement (whether or not in the ordinary course of business) that is material to the Company or incurred any liability or obligation, direct or contingent, that is material to the Company, in each case, other than as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus; and, since the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has not been (x) any change in the capital stock of the Company (other than as a result of (i) the exercise, if any, of stock options or the award, if any, of stock options, restricted stock or other awards in the ordinary course of business pursuant to the Company’s equity plans that are described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (ii) the issuance, if any, of shares of Common Stock upon conversion of Company securities as described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus), long-term debt of the Company or (y) any Material Adverse Effect (as defined below); as used in this Agreement, “Material Adverse Effect” or “Material Adverse Change” shall mean any material adverse change or effect, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change or effect, in or affecting (i) the business, properties, general affairs, management, financial position, stockholders’ equity, results of
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operations or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries (as defined below), except as set forth or contemplated in the Prospectus, or (ii) the ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement, including the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares.
(e)The Company and its Subsidiaries do not own any real property and the Company has good and marketable title to all personal property owned by it (other than with respect to Intellectual Property (as defined below), which is addressed exclusively in subsection (ii)) which is material to the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its Subsidiaries are held by the Company or its Subsidiaries, to its knowledge, under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and do not materially interfere with the use made and currently proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company and its Subsidiaries.
(f)The Company has been (i) duly organized and is validly existing and in good standing under the laws of its jurisdiction of organization, with power and authority (corporate and other) to own and/or lease its properties and conduct its business as described in the Prospectus, and (ii) duly qualified as a foreign corporation for the transaction of business and is in good standing (where such concept exists) under the laws of each other jurisdiction in which it owns or leases properties or conducts any business so as to require such qualification, except, in the case of this clause (ii), where the failure to be so qualified or in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
(g)Each subsidiary of the Company (each a “Subsidiary”) has been duly organized and is validly existing as a corporation or limited liability company in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its organization and has the requisite power and authority to own, lease and operate its properties and to conduct its business as described in the Prospectus. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries is duly qualified as a foreign corporation or foreign partnership to transact business and is in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation or formation and each other jurisdiction in which such qualification is required, whether by reason of the ownership or leasing of property or the conduct of business, except for such jurisdictions where the failure to so qualify or to be in good standing would not, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect. Except as described in the Prospectus, all of the issued and outstanding equity interests of the Subsidiaries have been duly authorized and validly issued, are fully paid and nonassessable and are owned by the Company free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or claim. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity other than the subsidiaries listed in Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the most recently ended fiscal year and other than (i) those subsidiaries not required to be listed on Exhibit 21.1 by Item 601 of Regulation S-K under the Exchange Act and (ii) those subsidiaries formed since the last day of the most recently ended fiscal year.
(h)The Company has an authorized capitalization as set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and all of the issued shares of capital stock of the Company have been duly and validly authorized and issued and are fully paid and non-assessable and conform
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in all material respects to the description of the capital stock contained in the Registration Statement and Prospectus.
(i)The Placement Shares, when issued and delivered, will be duly authorized for issuance and sale pursuant to this Agreement and, when issued and delivered by the Company against payment therefor pursuant to this Agreement, will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable and will conform in all material respects to the description of the Common Stock contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus; and the issuance of the Placement Shares is not subject to any preemptive or similar rights except as have been validly waived or complied with.
(j)The issue and sale of the Placement Shares and the compliance by the Company with this Agreement and the consummation of the transactions contemplated in this Agreement and the Prospectus will not conflict with or result in a breach or violation of any of the terms or provisions of, or constitute a default under, (A) any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, license, lease or other agreement or instrument to which the Company or any Subsidiary is a party or by which the Company or any Subsidiary is bound or to which any of the property or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary is subject, (B) the certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document) of the Company or any Subsidiary, or (C) any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary or any of its properties, except, in the case of clauses (A) and (C), for such defaults, breaches, or violations that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; and no consent, approval, authorization, order, registration or qualification of or with any such court or governmental agency or body is required for the issue and sale of the Placement Shares or the consummation by the Company of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, except such as have been obtained under the Actthe approval by the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) of the underwriting terms and arrangements and such consents, approvals, authorizations, registrations or qualifications as may be required under state securities or Blue Sky laws in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares.
(k)Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is (i) in violation of its certificate of incorporation or by-laws (or other applicable organizational document), (ii) in violation of any statute or any judgment, order, rule or regulation of any court or governmental agency or body having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary or any of its properties or assets, or (iii) in default, and no event has occurred that, with notice or lapse of time or both, would constitute such a default, in the performance or observance of any obligation, agreement, term, covenant or condition contained in any indenture, mortgage, deed of trust, loan agreement, license, lease or other agreement or instrument to which it is a party or by which it or any of its properties or assets may be bound, except, in the case of the foregoing clauses (ii) and (iii), for such violations or defaults as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.
(l)The statements set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus under the caption “Description of Capital Stock”, insofar as they purport to constitute a summary of the terms of the Stock, are accurate, complete and fair in all material respects.
(m)Other than as set forth in the Prospectus, there are no legal or governmental proceedings pending to which the Company or any Subsidiary, to the Company’s knowledge,
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any officer or director of the Company or any Subsidiary, is a party or of which any property or assets of the Company or any Subsidiary is the subject which, if determined adversely to the Company (or such officer or director), would individually or in the aggregate have a Material Adverse Effect; and, to the Company’s knowledge, no such proceedings are threatened or contemplated by governmental authorities or others.
(n)The Company is not and, after receipt of payment for the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds as described in the Prospectus, will not be, required to register as an “investment company”, as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”).
(o)(A) (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement, (ii) at the time of the most recent amendment thereto for the purposes of complying with Section 10(a)(3) of the Act (whether such amendment was by post-effective amendment, incorporated report filed pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act or form of prospectus), and (iii) at the time the Company or any person acting on its behalf (within the meaning, for this clause only, of Rule 163(c) under the Act) made any offer relating to the Placement Shares in reliance on the exemption of Rule 163 under the Act, the Company was a “well-known seasoned issuer” as defined in Rule 405 under the Act; and (B) at the time of filing the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the earliest time thereafter that the Company or any offering participant made a bona fide offer (within the meaning of Rule 164(h)(2) under the Act) of the Placement Shares, and at the date hereof, the Company was not and is not an "ineligible issuer," as defined under Rule 405 under the Act.
(p)Ernst & Young LLP, who has certified certain financial statements of the Company, is an independent public accounting firm as required by the Act and the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.
(q)There are no off-balance sheet arrangements (as defined in Regulation S-K Item 303(a)(4)(ii) of the Act) that have or are reasonably likely to have a material current or future effect on the Company’s financial condition, changes in financial condition, results of operations, liquidity, capital expenditures or capital resources.
(r)The Company maintains a system of internal control over financial reporting (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(f) under the Exchange Act that (i) complies with the requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to the Company, (ii) has been designed by the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or under their supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles and (iii) is designed to provide reasonable assurance that (A) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization, (B) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles and to maintain accountability for assets, (C) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization and (D) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences ; and the Company’s internal control over financial reporting is effective and the Company is not aware of any material weaknesses in its internal control over financial reporting (it being understood that this subsection shall not
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require the Company to comply with Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 as of an earlier date than it would otherwise be required to so comply under applicable law).
(s)Since the date of the latest audited financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, there has been no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially and adversely affected, or is reasonably likely to materially and adversely affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.
(t)The Company maintains disclosure controls and procedures (as such term is defined in Rule 13a-15(e) under the Exchange Act) that comply with the requirements of the Exchange Act applicable to the Company; such disclosure controls and procedures have been designed to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and principal financial officer by others within the Company; and such disclosure controls and procedures are effective in all material respects.
(u)The Company has all requisite corporate power and authority to execute and deliver, and to perform its obligations under, this Agreement. This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and is a valid and binding agreement of, the Company, enforceable in accordance with its terms, except as rights to indemnification hereunder may be limited by applicable law and except as the enforcement hereof may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws relating to or affecting the rights and remedies of creditors or by general equitable principles.
(v)Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor any of their respective directors, officers, or employees or, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, representative, affiliate or other person associated with or acting on behalf of the Company or any Subsidiary has (i) made, offered, promised, authorized, or approved any unlawful contribution, gift, entertainment or other unlawful expense (or taken or will take any action in furtherance thereof); (ii) made, offered, promised, authorized, or approved the provision or receipt of money, property, gifts, or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to or from any person, including any government official (including any officer, employee, or director of a government, government-owned or controlled entity, or public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office), in order to influence official action, improperly obtain or retain business, or otherwise in violation of applicable anti-corruption laws (or taken or will take any action in furtherance thereof); (iii) violated or is in violation of any provision of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, the Bribery Act 2010 of the United Kingdom or any other applicable anti-bribery or anti-corruption law; or (iv) will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money or anything else of value, to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws. The Company and each Subsidiary has instituted, maintains and enforces, and will continue to maintain and enforce, policies and procedures designed to promote and achieve compliance with all applicable anti-bribery and anti-corruption laws and with the representations and warranties contained herein.
(w)The operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in compliance with the requirements of applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements and anti-money laundering laws in jurisdictions where the Company and
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its Subsidiaries conduct business, including, but not limited to, the Bank Secrecy Act of 1970, as amended by the USA PATRIOT ACT of 2001, and the rules, regulations, and guidelines issued or promulgated thereunder, (collectively, the “Money Laundering Laws”) and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company and its Subsidiaries with respect to the Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened.
(x)The Company and each Subsidiary is and at all times has been in compliance in all material respects with all applicable foreign, federal, state and local healthcare laws, rules and regulations, including, without limitation, (i) the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. §§ 301 et seq.); (ii) all healthcare related fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-kickback Statute (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(b)), the civil False Claims Act (31 U.S.C. §§ 3729 et seq.), the criminal False Claims Law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7b(a)), the civil monetary penalties law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7a), the exclusion law (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7), the Physician Payments Sunshine Act (42 U.S.C. § 1320a-7h), all criminal laws relating to healthcare fraud and abuse, including but not limited to 18 U.S.C. Sections 286, 287, 1035, 1347 and 1349, the healthcare fraud criminal provisions under the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (“HIPAA”) (42 U.S.C. §§1320d et seq.), the Medicare statute (Title XVIII of the Social Security Act), and the Medicaid statute (Title XIX of the Social Security Act); and (iii) the patient privacy, data security and breach notification provisions under HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 (42 U.S.C. §§17921 et seq.); each as amended and the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws (collectively, “Healthcare Laws”). The Company has not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any arbitrator, court, governmental body, regulatory body, administrative agency, or other authority, body, or agency having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary (each, a “Governmental Entity”) or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Healthcare Laws, and, to the Company’s Knowledge, no such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action is threatened, except in each case as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is party to and does not have any ongoing reporting obligations pursuant to any corporate integrity agreement, deferred prosecution agreement, monitoring agreement, consent decree, settlement order, plan of correction or similar agreement with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority. Additionally, neither the Company, nor its Subsidiaries, nor any of their respective employees, officers or directors, or to the Company’s knowledge, agents, is or has been excluded, suspended, debarred or is otherwise ineligible from participation in any U.S. state or federal healthcare program or human clinical research or, to the knowledge of the Company, is subject to a governmental inquiry, investigation, proceeding, or other similar action that could reasonably be expected to result in debarment, suspension, or exclusion.
(y)The Company and each Subsidiary possesses such material permits, licenses, approvals, consents, exemptions, registrations, and other authorizations (collectively, “Governmental Licenses”) issued by the appropriate Governmental Entities necessary to conduct the business now operated by them. The Company is in material compliance with the terms and conditions of all Governmental Licenses, and all Governmental Licenses are valid and
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in full force and effect. Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or material modification of any Governmental Licenses.
(z)The Company and its Subsidiaries: (i) have not received any Form 483, notice of adverse finding, warning letter, untitled letter or other written correspondence, or to the Company’s knowledge any oral or other notice from any governmental authority alleging or asserting material noncompliance with any Healthcare Laws or the terms of any Governmental Licenses; (ii) have not received written notice of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action from any governmental authority or third party alleging that any product operation or activity is in violation of any Healthcare Laws or Governmental Licenses and have no knowledge that any such governmental authority or third party is considering any such claim, litigation, arbitration, action, suit, investigation or proceeding, except in each case as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect; (iii) (a) have filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Healthcare Laws or Governmental Licenses, (b) all such reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and correct and not misleading in all material respects on the date filed (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission), and (c) the Company is not aware of any reasonable basis for any material liability with respect to such filings; and (iv) has not, and to the knowledge of the Company, the Company’s officers, employees and agents have not, made any untrue statement of a material fact or fraudulent statement to any Governmental Entity or failed to disclose a material fact required to be disclosed to any Governmental Entity.
(aa)The preclinical tests and clinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement or Prospectus were and, if still pending, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with all applicable Healthcare Laws, including the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and the regulations set forth at 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58 and 312; the Company has no knowledge of any studies or tests the results of which are inconsistent with, or otherwise call into question, the results described in the Prospectus; and neither the Company nor any Subsidiary has received any written notices or other correspondence from any Governmental Entity requiring the termination, suspension or material modification of any preclinical tests or clinical trials.
(bb)Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries nor any of their respective directors, officers, or employees or, to the knowledge of the Company, any agent, representative, or affiliate of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is, or is owned or controlled by one or more persons that are: (i) the subject or the target of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Government, including, without limitation, the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the U.S. Department of the Treasury (“OFAC”), or the U.S. Department of State and including, without limitation, the designation as a “specially designated national” or “blocked person,” the European Union, His Majesty’s Treasury, the United Nations Security Council, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), or (ii) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject or target of Sanctions (including, without limitation, Crimea, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Syria, the non-government controlled areas of the Zaporizhzhia and Kherson Regions of Ukraine and the Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic regions
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of Ukraine). The Company will not directly or indirectly use the proceeds of the offering of the Placement Shares hereunder, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any subsidiary, joint venture partner or other person or entity (x) to fund or facilitate any activities of or business with any person, or in any country or territory, that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject or the target of Sanctions or (y) in any other manner that will result in a violation by any person (including any person participating in the transaction, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise) of Sanctions.
(cc)The financial statements included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes, present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries at the dates indicated and the statement of operations, stockholders’ equity and cash flows of the Company for the periods specified; said financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods involved. The supporting schedules, if any, present fairly in accordance with GAAP the information required to be stated therein. The selected financial data and the summary financial information included in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus present fairly in all material respects the information shown therein and have been compiled on a basis consistent with that of the audited financial statements included therein. Except as included therein, no historical or pro forma financial statements or supporting schedules are required to be included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus under the Act or the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.
(dd)There are no debt securities, convertible securities or preferred stock issued or guaranteed by the Company that are rated by a “nationally recognized statistical rating organization”, as such term is defined in Section 3(a)(62) under the Exchange Act.
(ee)Reserved.
(ff)There are no persons with registration rights or other similar rights to have any securities registered pursuant to the Registration Statement or otherwise registered by the Company under the Act except as have been validly waived or complied with.
(gg)The Company’s and each of the Subsidiary’s information technology assets and equipment, computers, systems, networks, hardware, software, websites, applications, and databases (collectively, “IT Systems”) are adequate for, and operate and perform in all material respects as required in connection with the operation of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries as currently conducted, and, to the knowledge of the Company, are free and clear of all material bugs, errors, defects, Trojan horses, time bombs, malware and other corruptants. The Company and each of the Subsidiaries have implemented and maintained commercially reasonable controls, policies, procedures, and safeguards to maintain and protect their material confidential information and the integrity, continuous operation, redundancy and security of all IT Systems and data (including all personal, personally identifiable, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Personal Data”)) used in connection with its businesses, and there have been no breaches, violations, outages or unauthorized uses of or accesses to the same, except for those that have been remedied without material cost or liability or the duty to notify any other person, nor any incidents under internal review or investigations relating to the same. The Company and each Subsidiary is presently, and at all times has been, in material compliance with all applicable
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data privacy and security laws and regulations, including the European Union General Data Protection Regulation) (EU 2016/679), and all judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority, internal policies and contractual obligations relating to the privacy and security of IT Systems and Personal Data, and Personal Data and to the protection of such IT Systems and Personal Data from unauthorized use, access, misappropriation or modification, except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect. The Company and each Subsidiary has taken or is currently taking all necessary actions to comply with all other applicable laws and regulations with respect to Personal Data that have been announced as of the date hereof as becoming effective within 12 months after the date hereof, and for which any non-compliance with the same would be reasonably likely to create a material liability, as soon as reasonably practicable as they take effect.
(hh)The Company and the Subsidiaries have filed all tax returns required to be filed by it through the date hereof, or has duly requested extensions thereof (except where the failure to file would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect), and has paid all taxes shown as due thereon (except for cases in which the failure to file or pay would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect or, except as currently being contested in good faith and for which reserves required by U.S. GAAP have been created in the financial statements of the Company), and all such tax returns are true and correct in all material respects. No deficiencies for taxes of the Company or any Subsidiary has been assessed by a tax authority, and no deficiencies for taxes of the Company or any Subsidiary has, to the Company’s knowledge, been proposed by a tax authority, except for such deficiencies as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.
(ii)The Company and its Subsidiaries own, or have obtained valid and enforceable licenses for, the inventions, patent applications, patents, trademarks, trade names, service names, copyrights, know-how, trade secrets and other intellectual property described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as being owned or licensed by the Company or the Subsidiaries or which are necessary for the conduct of the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s business as currently conducted or as currently proposed to be conducted in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus (collectively, “Intellectual Property”), and there are no unreleased liens or security interests which have been filed against any of the patents owned by the Company or any Subsidiary. To the Company’s knowledge: (i) there are no third parties who have rights to any Intellectual Property, except for customary reversionary rights of third-party licensors with respect to Intellectual Property that is disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as licensed to the Company or the Subsidiaries, and the Company and the Subsidiaries have taken all reasonable steps necessary to secure their respective interests in the Intellectual Property from its employees and contractors; (ii) there is no infringement, misappropriation or violation by third parties of any Intellectual Property; (iii) neither the Company nor any of the Subsidiaries is infringing, misappropriating or violating the intellectual property rights of third parties; (iv) the Company and the Subsidiaries are the sole owner of the Intellectual Property owned by them and has the valid right to use such Intellectual Property; and (v) no employee of the Company or any Subsidiary is in or has been in violation of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or
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with a former employer where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment with the Company or any Subsidiary. There is no pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened action, suit, proceeding or claim by others: (A) challenging the Company’s or any Subsidiary’s rights in or to any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; (B) challenging the validity, enforceability or scope of any Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim; or (C) asserting that either the Company or any Subsidiary infringes or otherwise violates, or would, upon the commercialization of any product or service described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development, infringe, misappropriate or violate, any patent, trademark, trade name, service name, copyright, trade secret or other proprietary rights of others, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim. The Company and each Subsidiary has complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which Intellectual Property has been licensed to the Company or any Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. The product candidates described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as under development by the Company or any Subsidiary fall within the scope of the claims of one or more patents or patent applications owned by, or exclusively licensed to, the Company or any Subsidiary.
(jj)All patents and patent applications owned by or exclusively licensed to the Company or any Subsidiary or under which the Company or any Subsidiary has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and each issued patent is being diligently maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, the parties prosecuting such applications have complied with their duty of candor and disclosure to the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (the “USPTO”) in connection with such applications; to the Company’s knowledge, there is no prior art material to any patent or patent application of the Intellectual Property of the Company that may render any U.S. patent held by the Company or any Subsidiary invalid or any U.S. patent application held by the Company or any Subsidiary unpatentable; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the USPTO that were not disclosed to the USPTO and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or would reasonably be expected to form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that have been issued with respect to such applications.
(kk)(i) the Company and each Subsidiary (x) is in compliance with all, and has not violated any, applicable federal, state, local and foreign laws, rules, regulations, requirements, decisions, judgments, decrees, orders and other legally enforceable requirements relating to pollution or the protection of human health or safety, the environment, natural resources, hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (collectively, “Environmental Laws”); (y) has received and is in compliance with all, and have not violated any, permits, licenses, certificates or other authorizations or approvals required of it under any Environmental Laws to conduct its businesses; and (z) has not received written notice of any actual or potential liability by the Company or any Subsidiary or obligation of the Company or any Subsidiary under or relating to, or any actual or potential violation of, any Environmental Laws by the Company or any Subsidiary, including for the investigation or remediation of any disposal or release of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, and
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have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in any such notice, and (ii) there are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws of or relating to the Company or any Subsidiary, except in the case of each of (i) and (ii) above, for any such matter as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; and (iii) except as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (x) there is no proceeding that is pending, or that is known by the Company to be contemplated, against the Company or any Subsidiary under any Environmental Laws in which a governmental entity is also a party, other than such proceeding regarding which the Company reasonably believes no monetary sanctions of $100,000 or more will be imposed, (y) the Company is not aware of any facts or issues regarding compliance with Environmental Laws, or liabilities or other obligations under Environmental Laws or concerning hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants, that would, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and (z) the Company does not anticipate material capital expenditures relating to any Environmental Laws.
(ll)No labor disturbance by or dispute with the employees of the Company or any Subsidiary exists or, to the knowledge of the Company, is contemplated or threatened, and the Company is not aware of any existing or imminent labor disturbance by, or dispute with, the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers, customers or contractors, which, in either case, would, individually or in the aggregate, result in a Material Adverse Effect.
(mm))(i) Except as would not, individually or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, each employee benefit plan, within the meaning of Section 3(3) of the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended (“ERISA”), for which the Company or any member of its “Controlled Group” (defined as any entity, whether or not incorporated, that is under common control with the Company within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(14) of ERISA or any entity that would be regarded as a single employer with the Company under Section 414(b),(c),(m) or (o) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”)) would have any liability (each, a “Plan”) has been maintained in material compliance with its terms and the requirements of any applicable statutes, orders, rules and regulations, including but not limited to ERISA and the Code; (ii) no prohibited transaction, within the meaning of Section 406 of ERISA or Section 4975 of the Code, has occurred with respect to any Plan, excluding transactions effected pursuant to a statutory or administrative exemption; (ii) none of the Plans are subject to Section 412 of the Code or Section 302 or Title IV of ERISA; (iv) neither the Company nor any member of the Controlled Group has incurred, nor reasonably expects to incur, any material liability under Title IV of ERISA in respect of a Plan (including a “multiemployer plan” within the meaning of Section 4001(a)(3) of ERISA); and (v) each Plan that is intended to be qualified under Section 401(a) of the Code is so qualified, and nothing has occurred, whether by action or by failure to act, which would cause the loss of such qualification.
(nn)There are no business relationships or related-party transactions involving the Company or any Subsidiary or any other person required to be described in the Prospectus that have not been described as required.
(oo)The Company and each Subsidiary has insurance against such losses and risks and in such amounts as are, in the Company’s reasonable judgment, prudent and customary for the size of the business and the industry in which it is engaged and neither the Company nor any
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Subsidiary has not received notice from any insurer or agent of such insurer that capital improvements or other expenditures are required or necessary to be made in order to continue such insurance nor does the Company have any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage at reasonable cost from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business.
(pp)Except for Cowen, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.
(qq)The Company has not, and, to its knowledge, no one acting on its behalf (other than Cowen) has taken, directly or indirectly, any action designed to or that could reasonably be expected to cause or result in any stabilization or manipulation of the price of the Placement Shares.
(rr)The statistical and market-related data included in the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources that the Company believes to be reliable and accurate in all material respects.
(ss)The interactive data in XBRL, if any, included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto to the extent required.
(tt)The Company has not distributed and will not distribute, prior to the completion of Cowen’s distribution of the Placement Shares, any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Prospectus or the Registration Statement.
(uu)The documents incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, at the time they were or hereafter are filed with the Commission, complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act, and, when read together with the other information in the Prospectus, at the Settlement Dates, will not contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(vv)The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) or Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act and is listed on the Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from the Exchange, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. All of the Placement Shares that have been or may be sold under this Agreement have been approved for listing on the Nasdaq, subject to official notice of issuance; the Company has taken all necessary actions to ensure that, upon and at all times after the Nasdaq shall have approved the Placement
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Shares for listing, it will be in compliance with all applicable corporate governance requirements set forth in the Nasdaq’s listing rules that are then in effect.
(ww)Except as described in the Prospectus, there are no outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees or indebtedness by the Company to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of the members of any of them.
(xx)The Company has not relied upon Cowen or legal counsel for Cowen for any legal, tax or accounting advice in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares.
(yy)The Company has not been advised, and has no reason to believe, that it and each of its subsidiaries are not conducting business in compliance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations of the jurisdictions in which it is conducting business, except where failure to be so in compliance would not result in a Material Adverse Change.
(zz)FINRA Exemption. The Company qualifies as an “experienced issuer” (within the meaning of FINRA Conduct Rule 5110(j)(6)) for purposes of the exemption from filing under FINRA Conduct Rule 5110(h)(1)(C).
Any certificate signed by an officer of the Company and delivered to Cowen or to counsel for Cowen pursuant to or in connection with this Agreement shall be deemed to be a representation and warranty by the Company to Cowen as to the matters set forth therein.
The Company acknowledges that Cowen and, for purposes of the opinions to be delivered pursuant to Section 7 hereof, counsel to the Company and counsel to Cowen, will rely upon the accuracy and truthfulness of the foregoing representations and hereby consents to such reliance.
7.Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with Cowen that:
(a)Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which a Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), (i) the Company will notify Cowen promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than documents incorporated by reference, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information (insofar as it relates to the transactions contemplated hereby), (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon Cowen’s reasonable request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in Cowen’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by Cowen (provided, however, that the failure of Cowen to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (other than Cowen’s rights under Section 9 hereof) shall be to
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cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to Cowen within a reasonable period of time before the filing and Cowen has not reasonably objected thereto in writing within two business days (provided, however, that (A) the failure of Cowen to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect Cowen’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement, (B) the Company has no obligation to provide Cowen any advance copy of such filing or to provide Cowen an opportunity to object to such filing if the filing does not name Cowen and does not relate to the transaction herein and (C) the only remedy Cowen shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to provide Cowen with such copy, to make such filings, or to obtain such consent (other than Cowen’s rights under Section 9 hereof) shall be to cease making sales under this Agreement)) and the Company will furnish to Cowen at the time of filing thereof a copy of any document that upon filing is deemed to be incorporated by reference into the Registration Statement or Prospectus, except for those documents available via EDGAR; (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than documents incorporated by reference, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act, and (v) prior to the termination of this Agreement, the Company will notify Cowen if at any time the Registration Statement shall no longer be effective as a result of the passage of time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act or otherwise. Prior to the initial sale of any Placement Shares, the Company shall file a final Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) relating to the Placement Shares.
(b)Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise Cowen, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction, or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued.
(c)Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares, (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and to file on or before their respective due dates taking into account any extensions available under the Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify Cowen to suspend the offering of Placement Shares
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during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance; provided, however, that the Company may delay any such amendment or supplement if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect during such time.
(d)Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by Cowen under the Securities Act with respect to a pending sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq and to qualify the Placement Shares for sale under the securities laws of such jurisdictions as Cowen reasonably designates and to continue such qualifications in effect so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required in connection therewith to qualify as a foreign corporation or dealer in securities or file a general consent to service of process in any jurisdiction.
(e)Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to Cowen and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all documents incorporated by reference therein) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which a Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all documents filed with the Commission during such period that are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as Cowen may from time to time reasonably request and, at Cowen’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to Cowen to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.
(f)Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) and Rule 158 of the Securities Act.
(g)Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated, in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay the following expenses all incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including, but not limited to, expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of each Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto, (ii) the preparation, issuance and delivery of the Placement Shares, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(d) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for Cowen in connection therewith shall be paid by Cowen except as set forth in (vii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to Cowen of copies of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, of the
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Commission, (vii) the filing fees and associated legal expenses of Cowen’s outside counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department, such legal expense reimbursement not to exceed $15,000 and, (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of Cowen’s counsel in an amount not to exceed $50,000.
(h)Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”
(i)Notice of Other Sales. During the pendency of any Placement Notice given hereunder, and for 5 trading days following the termination of any Placement Notice given hereunder, the Company shall provide Cowen notice as promptly as reasonably practicable before it offers to sell, contracts to sell, sells, grants any option to sell or otherwise disposes of any shares of Common Stock (other than Placement Shares offered pursuant to the provisions of this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable for Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire Common Stock; provided, that such notice shall not be required in connection with the (i) offer, issuance, grant or sale of Common Stock (including restricted Common Stock), options to purchase shares of Common Stock or Common Stock, restricted stock units or other equity awards issuable upon the exercise of options or other equity awards pursuant to any stock option, stock bonus or other stock plan or arrangement described in the Prospectus, (ii) the offer or issuance of securities in connection with an acquisition, merger or sale or purchase or license of assets, (iii) the issuance or sale of Common Stock pursuant to any dividend reinvestment plan that the Company may adopt from time to time provided the implementation of such is disclosed to Cowen in advance or (iv) any shares of Common Stock, or securities convertible into or exercisable for Common Stock, offered and sold in a privately negotiated transaction to vendors, customers, investors, strategic partners or potential strategic partners and otherwise conducted in a manner so as not to be integrated with the offering of Placement Shares hereby or (v) the issuance or sale of any shares of common stock issuable upon the exchange, conversion or redemption of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding or disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to Cowen prior to the date of the applicable Placement Notice. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions, subject to the Company’s compliance with the notice provisions set forth in this Section 7(i), nothing herein shall be construed to restrict the Company from entering into and/or consummating a committed underwritten equity offering or other similar offering of its registered securities, or otherwise prohibit the issuance of its equity securities in a private placement transaction, or obtain prior written consent, to do any of the foregoing.
(j)Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise Cowen promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge thereof, of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided to Cowen pursuant to this Agreement.
(k)Due Diligence Cooperation. The Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by Cowen or its agents in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including, without limitation, providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as Cowen may reasonably request.
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(l)Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act (each and every filing under Rule 424(b), a “Filing Date”), and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market. The Company shall disclose in its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q and in its annual report on Form 10-K, the number of the Placement Shares sold through Cowen under this Agreement, and the gross proceeds and Net Proceeds to the Company from the sale of the Placement Shares and the compensation paid by the Company with respect to sales of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement during the relevant quarter or, in the case of an Annual Report on Form 10-K, during the fiscal year covered by such Annual Report and the fourth quarter of such fiscal year.
(m)Bring-Down Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and each time (i) the Company files the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares or amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker, or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares; (ii) the Company files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act; (iii) the Company files its quarterly reports on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; (iv) the Company files a report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release) under the Exchange Act; or (v) the Company effects a Block Sale in accordance with Section 3 of this Agreement (each event or date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (v) shall be a "Bring-Down Date"); the Company shall furnish Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) within three (3) Trading Days of any Bring-Down Date if requested by Cowen. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Bring-Down Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Bring-Down Date) and the next occurring Bring-Down Date; provided, however, that such waiver shall not apply for any Bring-Down Date on which the Company files its annual report on Form 10-K. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Bring-Down Date when the Company relied on such waiver and did not provide Cowen with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers the Placement Notice or Cowen sells any Placement Shares, the Company shall provide Cowen with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of the Placement Notice.
(n)Legal Opinion. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to Cowen a written opinion of Latham & Watkins LLP (“Company Counsel”), or other counsel satisfactory to Cowen, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as
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then amended or supplemented; provided, however, the Company shall be required to furnish to Cowen no more than one counsel for the Company written opinion hereunder per each filing of an annual report on Form 10-K or quarterly report on Form 10-Q; provided, however that in lieu of such opinions for subsequent Bring-Down Dates, counsel may furnish Cowen with a letter (a “Reliance Letter”) to the effect that Cowen may rely on a prior opinion delivered under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Bring-Down Date).
(o)Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Delivery Date and within three (3) Trading Days of each Bring-Down Date with respect to which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent accountants to furnish Cowen letters (the "Comfort Letters"), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen, (i) confirming that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) stating, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to Cowen in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the Initial Comfort Letter) and (iii) updating the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.
(p)[Reserved]
(q)Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase the Common Stock to be issued and sold pursuant to this Agreement, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than Cowen; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of its common stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.
(r)Insurance. The Company and its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged.
(s)Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental permits, licenses and other authorizations required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus, and the Company and each of its subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations and with applicable environmental laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such permits, licenses and authorizations could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change.
(t)Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor its subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior
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to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act, assuming no change in the Commission’s current interpretation as to entities that are not considered an investment company.
(u)Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use its best efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the continuance of sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.
(v)No Offer to Sell. Other than a Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, neither Cowen nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than Cowen in its capacity as such) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Common Stock hereunder.
(w)Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company and its subsidiaries will use their best efforts to comply with all effective applicable provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act.
(x)Affirmation. Each Placement Notice delivered by the Company to Cowen shall be deemed to be (i) an affirmation that the representations, warranties and agreements of the Company herein contained and contained in any certificate delivered to Cowen pursuant hereto are true and correct at the time of delivery of such Placement Notice, and (ii) an undertaking that such representations, warranties and agreements will be true and correct on any applicable Time of Sale and Settlement Date, as though made at and as of each such time (it being understood that such representations, warranties and agreements shall relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended and supplemented to the time of such Placement Notice acceptance).
(y)Renewal. If immediately prior to the third anniversary (the “Renewal Deadline”) of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement, the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares sold by the Company is less than the Maximum Amount and this Agreement has not expired or been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Deadline, file, if it has not already done so and is eligible to do so, a new shelf registration statement relating to the Placement Shares, in a form satisfactory to Cowen, and, if not automatically effective, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 60 days after the Renewal Deadline. The Company will take all other action necessary or appropriate to permit the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement relating to the Placement Shares. References herein to the Registration Statement shall include such new shelf registration statement.
8.Conditions to Cowen’s Obligations. The obligations of Cowen hereunder with respect to a Placement Notice will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and thereunder, to the completion by Cowen of a due diligence review satisfactory to Cowen in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by Cowen in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:
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(a)Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for (i) all sales of Placement Shares issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) the sale of all Placement Shares contemplated to be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.
(b)No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, related Prospectus or such documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, that in the case of the Prospectus, it will not contain any materially untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.
(c)No Misstatement or Material Omission. Cowen shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in Cowen’s reasonable opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.
(d)Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Change or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities) by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), the effect of which, in the case of any such action by a rating organization described above, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.
(e)Company Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received the opinions of Company Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n).
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(f)Cowen Counsel Legal Opinion. Cowen shall have received from Cooley LLP, counsel for Cowen, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as Cowen may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they request for enabling them to pass upon such matters.
(g)Comfort Letter. Cowen shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(o) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(o).
(h)Representation Certificate. Cowen shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).
(i)Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Delivery Date, Cowen shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by its corporate secretary, in form and substance satisfactory to Cowen and its counsel.
(j)[Reserved]
(k)No Suspension. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on Nasdaq.
(l)Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to Cowen such appropriate further information, certificates and documents as Cowen may have reasonably requested. All such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company will furnish Cowen with such conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as Cowen shall have reasonably requested.
(m)Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424.
(n)Approval for Listing. To the extent required by the rules of Nasdaq, the Placement Shares shall either have been (i) approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the issuance of any Placement Notice.
(o)No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit Cowen to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).
9.Indemnification and Contribution.
(a)Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless Cowen, the directors, officers, partners, employees and agents of Cowen and each person, if any, who (i) controls Cowen within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of
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the Exchange Act, or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with Cowen from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including, but not limited to, any and all reasonable investigative, legal and other expenses incurred in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with Section 9(c)) of, any action, suit or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party, or otherwise, or any claim asserted), as and when incurred, to which Cowen, or any such person, may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated in it or necessary to make the statements in it not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties and agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused directly or indirectly by an untrue statement or omission made in reliance upon and in conformity with solely Agent’s Information. “Agent’s Information” means, solely, the following information in the Prospectus: the tenth paragraph under the caption “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.
(b)Cowen Indemnification. Cowen agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company that signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.
(c)Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the
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extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any legal or other expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly as they are incurred. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party from all liability arising or that may arise out of such claim, action or proceeding.
(d)Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable from the Company or Cowen, the Company and Cowen will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than Cowen, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and Cowen may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and Cowen on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before
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deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by Cowen from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and Cowen, on the other, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or Cowen, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and Cowen agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(d) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense, or damage, or action in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(d) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(d), any legal or other expenses reasonably incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action or claim to the extent consistent with Section 9(c) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(d), Cowen shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(d), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of the Securities Act, and any officers, directors, partners, employees or agents of Cowen, will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer and director of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(d), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(d) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.
10.Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of Cowen, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.
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11.Termination.
(a)Cowen shall have the right by giving written notice as hereinafter specified at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Change, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Change has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of Cowen, may materially impair the ability of Cowen to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder, or (iii) any other condition of Cowen’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, or (iv), any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g) (Expenses), Section 9 (Indemnification and Contribution), Section 10 (Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery), Section 16 (Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction) and Section 17 (Waiver of Jury Trial) hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If Cowen elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), Cowen shall provide the required written notice as specified in Section 12 (Notices).
The Company shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(b)Cowen shall have the right, by giving ten (10) days’ notice as hereinafter specified to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(c)Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through Cowen on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.
(d)This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.
Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by Cowen or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not have liability to Cowen for any discount,
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commission or other compensation with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by Cowen under this Agreement, except with respect to reimbursement of expenses pursuant to Section 7(g)
Subject to the additional limitations set forth in Section 7 of this Agreement, in the event of termination of this Agreement prior to the sale of any Placement Shares. Cowen shall be entitled only to reimbursement of its out of pocket expenses actually incurred.
12.Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to Cowen, shall be delivered to Cowen at Cowen and Company, LLC, 599 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 10022, fax no. 646-562-1130, Attention: General Counsel, email: Bradley.friedman@cowen.com, with a copy to Cooley LLP, fax no. 212-479-6275, attention: Daniel I. Goldberg, email: dgoldberg@cooley.com; or if sent to the Company, shall be delivered to Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., 3027 Townsgate Road, Suite 300, Westlake Village, CA 91361, attention: General Counsel, email: mmatsuda@arcutis.com, with a copy to Latham & Watkins LLP, attention: Ross McAloon, email: ross.mcaloon@lw.com. Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally or by verifiable facsimile transmission (with an original to follow) on or before 4:30 p.m., New York City time, on a Business Day (as defined below), or, if such day is not a Business Day on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier and (iii) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.
13.Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and Cowen and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers and directors referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto or their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that Cowen may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of Cowen without obtaining the Company’s consent.
14.Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.
15.Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability. This Agreement (including all schedules and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter
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hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and Cowen. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement.
16.Applicable Law; Consent to Jurisdiction. This Agreement shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York without regard to the principles of conflicts of laws. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any transaction contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.
17.Waiver of Jury Trial. The Company and Cowen each hereby irrevocably waives any right it may have to a trial by jury in respect of any claim based upon or arising out of this Agreement or any transaction contemplated hereby.
18.Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:
(a)Cowen has been retained solely to act as an arm’s length contractual counterparty to the Company in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby and that no fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship between the Company and Cowen has been created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether Cowen has advised or is advising the Company on other matters;
(b)the Company is capable of evaluating and understanding and understands and accepts the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;
(c)the Company has been advised that Cowen and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that Cowen has no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship; and
(d)the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against Cowen, for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty and agrees that Cowen shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such
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a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders, partners, employees or creditors of the Company.
19.Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or by electronic delivery of a portable document format (PDF) file (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com).
20.Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes.
(a)In the event that Cowen is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from Cowen of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.
(b)In the event that Cowen is a Covered Entity and Cowen or a BHC Act Affiliate of Cowen becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against Cowen are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.
For purposes of this Section 20; (a) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k), (b) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b), (c) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable, and (d) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.
[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]
- 33 -


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and Cowen, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and Cowen.
Very truly yours,
COWEN AND COMPANY, LLC
By:/s/ Michael Murphy
Name:Michael Murphy
Title:Managing Director
ACCEPTED as of the date
first-above written:
ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
By:/s/ John Smither
 Name:John Smither
Title:Chief Financial Officer
34

SCHEDULE 1
FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE
From:[                              ]
Cc:[                              ]
To:[                              ]
SubjectCowen At the Market Offering—Placement Notice
Gentlemen:
Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Amended and Restated Sales Agreement between Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”), and Cowen and Company, LLC (“Cowen”) dated January 31, 2024 (the “Agreement”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that Cowen sell up to [ ] shares of the Company’s common stock, par value $0.0001 per share, at a minimum market price of $_______ per share. Sales should begin on the date of this Notice and shall continue until [DATE] [all shares are sold].


SCHEDULE 2
Notice Parties
Company
Todd Franklin WatanabePresident and Chief Executive Officer
John SmitherChief Financial Officer
Masaru MatsudaGeneral Counsel
Cowen
Michael J. MurphyManaging Director
William FollisManaging Director


SCHEDULE 3
Compensation
Cowen shall be paid compensation of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Common Stock pursuant to the terms of this Agreement.


Exhibit 7(m)
OFFICER CERTIFICATE
The undersigned, the duly qualified and elected _______________________, of Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc. (“Company”), a Delaware corporation, does hereby certify in such capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Amended and Restated Sales Agreement dated January 31, 2024 (the “Sales Agreement”) between the Company and Cowen and Company, LLC, that to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned.
(i)The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Change, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof, except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date, and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof except for those representations and warranties that speak solely as of a specific date and which were true and correct as of such date; and
(ii)The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.
By:
Name:
Title:
Date:

Document
Exhibit 4.5

Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc
INDENTURE
Dated as of ___________, 20__
[]
Trustee


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ARTICLE I. DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE1
Section 1.1.Definitions.1
Section 1.2.Other Definitions. 4
Section 1.3.Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.5
Section 1.4.Rules of Construction.5
ARTICLE II. THE SECURITIES
6
Section 2.1.Issuable in Series. 6
Section 2.2.Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.6
Section 2.3.Execution and Authentication.8
Section 2.4.Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent.9
Section 2.5.Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.10
Section 2.6.Holder Lists.11
Section 2.7.Transfer and Exchange.11
Section 2.8.Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.11
Section 2.9.Outstanding Securities.12
Section 2.10.Treasury Securities.13
Section 2.11.Temporary Securities.13
Section 2.12.Cancellation.13
Section 2.13.Defaulted Interest.13
Section 2.14.Global Securities.14
Section 2.15.CUSIP Numbers.16
ARTICLE III. REDEMPTION16
Section 3.1.Notice to Trustee.16
Section 3.2.Selection of Securities to be Redeemed.16
Section 3.3.Notice of Redemption.17
Section 3.4.Effect of Notice of Redemption.18
Section 3.5.Deposit of Redemption Price.18
Section 3.6.Securities Redeemed in Part.18
ARTICLE IV. COVENANTS18
Section 4.1.Payment of Principal and Interest.18
Section 4.2.SEC Reports.18
Section 4.3.Compliance Certificate.19
Section 4.4.Stay, Extension and Usury Laws.19
i

ARTICLE V. SUCCESSORS20
Section 5.1.When Company May Merge, Etc.20
Section 5.2.Successor Corporation Substituted.20
ARTICLE VI. DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES
20
Section 6.1.Events of Default.20
Section 6.2.Acceleration of Maturity; Rescission and Annulment.22
Section 6.3.Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.23
Section 6.4.Trustee May File Proofs of Claim.23
Section 6.5.Trustee May Enforce Claims Without Possession of Securities.24
Section 6.6.Application of Money Collected.24
Section 6.7.Limitation on Suits.25
Section 6.8.Unconditional Right of Holders to Receive Principal and Interest.25
Section 6.9.Restoration of Rights and Remedies.26
Section 6.10.Rights and Remedies Cumulative.26
Section 6.11.Delay or Omission Not Waiver.26
Section 6.12.Control by Holders.26
Section 6.13.Waiver of Past Defaults.27
Section 6.14.Undertaking for Costs.27
ARTICLE VII. TRUSTEE27
Section 7.1.Duties of Trustee.27
Section 7.2.Rights of Trustee.29
Section 7.3.Individual Rights of Trustee.30
Section 7.4.Trustee’s Disclaimer.30
Section 7.5.Notice of Defaults.30
Section 7.6.Reports by Trustee to Holders.31
Section 7.7.Compensation and Indemnity.31
Section 7.8.Replacement of Trustee.32
Section 7.9.Successor Trustee by Merger, Etc.33
Section 7.10.Eligibility; Disqualification.33
Section 7.11.Preferential Collection of Claims Against Company.33
ARTICLE VIII. SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE; DEFEASANCE33
Section 8.1.Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.33
Section 8.2.Application of Trust Funds; Indemnification.34
Section 8.3.Legal Defeasance of Securities of any Series.35
Section 8.4.Covenant Defeasance.37
Section 8.5.Repayment to Company.38
Section 8.6.Reinstatement.38
ii

ARTICLE IX. AMENDMENTS AND WAIVERS38
Section 9.1.Without Consent of Holders.38
Section 9.2.With Consent of Holders.39
Section 9.3.Limitations.40
Section 9.4.Compliance with Trust Indenture Act.40
Section 9.5.Revocation and Effect of Consents.40
Section 9.6.Notation on or Exchange of Securities.41
Section 9.7.Trustee Protected.41
ARTICLE X. MISCELLANEOUS
41
Section 10.1.Trust Indenture Act Controls.41
Section 10.2.Notices.42
Section 10.3.Communication by Holders with Other Holders.43
Section 10.4.Certificate and Opinion as to Conditions Precedent.43
Section 10.5.Statements Required in Certificate or Opinion.43
Section 10.6.Rules by Trustee and Agents.44
Section 10.7.Legal Holidays.44
Section 10.8.No Recourse Against Others.44
Section 10.9.Counterparts.44
Section 10.10.Governing Law; Waiver of Jury Trial; Consent to Jurisdiction.45
Section 10.11.No Adverse Interpretation of Other Agreements.45
Section 10.12.Successors.45
Section 10.13.Severability.46
Section 10.14.Table of Contents, Headings, Etc.46
Section 10.15.Securities in a Foreign Currency.46
Section 10.16.Judgment Currency.46
Section 10.17.Force Majeure.47
Section 10.18.U.S.A. Patriot Act.47
ARTICLE XI. SINKING FUNDS47
Section 11.1.Applicability of Article.47
Section 11.2.Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.48
Section 11.3.Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.48
iii

ARCUTIS BIOTHERAPEUTICS, INC.
Reconciliation and tie between Trust Indenture Act of 1939 and
Indenture, dated as of ____________, 20__
§ 310(a)(1)7.10
(a)(2)7.10
(a)(3)Not Applicable
(a)(4)Not Applicable
(a)(5)7.10
(b)7.10
§ 311(a)7.11
(b)7.11
(c)Not Applicable
§ 312(a)2.6
(b)10.3
(c)10.3
§ 313(a)7.6
(b)(1)7.6
(b)(2)7.6
(c)(1)7.6
(d)7.6
§ 314(a)4.2, 10.5
(b)Not Applicable
(c)(1)10.4
(c)(2)10.4
(c)(3)Not Applicable
(d)Not Applicable
(e)10.5
(f)Not Applicable
§ 315(a)7.1
(b)7.5
(c)7.1
(d)7.1
(e)6.14
§ 316(a)2.10
(a)(1)(A)6.12
(a)(1)(B)6.13
(b)6.8
§ 317(a)(1)6.3
(a)(2)6.4
(b)2.5
§ 318(a)10.1
_________________
Note: This reconciliation and tie shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be part of the Indenture.
iv

Indenture dated as of __________, 20__ between Arcutis Biotherapeutics, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of Delaware (“Company”), and [_] (“Trustee”).
Each party agrees as follows for the benefit of the other party and for the equal and ratable benefit of the Holders of the Securities issued under this Indenture.
ARTICLE I.
DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE
Section 1.1.     Definitions.
Affiliate” of any specified person means any other person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with such specified person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any person, shall mean the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such person, whether through the ownership of voting securities or by agreement or otherwise.
Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent.
Board of Directors” means the board of directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee thereof.
Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been adopted by the Board of Directors or pursuant to authorization by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of the certificate and delivered to the Trustee.
Business Day” means any day except a Saturday, Sunday or a legal holiday in the City of New York, New York (or in connection with any payment, the place of payment) on which banking institutions are authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to close.
Capital Stock” means any and all shares, interests, participations, rights or other equivalents (however designated) of corporate stock.
Company” means the party named as such above until a successor replaces it and thereafter means the successor.
Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by an Officer and delivered to the Trustee.
Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which at any particular time its corporate trust business related to this Indenture shall be principally administered.


Default” means any event which is, or after notice, passage of time or both would be, an Event of Default.
Depositary” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the person designated as Depositary for such Series by the Company, which Depositary shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act; and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Depositary” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Depositary with respect to the Securities of such Series.
Discount Security” means any Security that provides for an amount less than the stated principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.
Dollars” and “$” means the currency of the United States of America.
Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.
Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.
Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities of any Series that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, direct obligations of, or obligations guaranteed by, the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.
“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles in the United States of America set forth in the opinions and pronouncements of the Accounting Principles Board of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and statements and pronouncements of the Financial Accounting Standards Board or in such other statements by such other entity as have been approved by a significant segment of the accounting profession, which are in effect as of the date of determination.
Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2 evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities, issued to the Depositary for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depositary or nominee.
Holder” means a person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.
Indenture” means this Indenture as amended or supplemented from time to time and shall include the form and terms of particular Series of Securities established as contemplated hereunder.
2

interest” with respect to any Discount Security which by its terms bears interest only after Maturity, means interest payable after Maturity.
Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption or otherwise.
Officer” means the Chief Executive Officer, President, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or any Assistant Treasurer, the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary and any Vice President of the Company.
Officer’s Certificate” means a certificate signed by any Officer that meets the requirements of this Indenture.
Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion of legal counsel who is acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company. The opinion may contain customary limitations, conditions and exceptions.
person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, joint venture, association, limited liability company, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.
principal” of a Security means the principal of the Security plus, when appropriate, the premium, if any, on the Security.
Responsible Officer” means any officer of the Trustee in its Corporate Trust Office having responsibility for administration of this Indenture and also means, with respect to a particular corporate trust matter, any other officer to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with a particular subject.
SEC” means the Securities and Exchange Commission.
Security” or “Securities” means the debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company of any Series authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.
Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2 hereof.
Stated Maturity” when used with respect to any Security, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or interest is due and payable.
Subsidiary” of any specified person means any corporation, association or other business entity of which more than 50% of the total voting power of shares of Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors, managers or trustees thereof is at the time owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by such person or one or more of the other Subsidiaries of that person or a combination thereof.
3

TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code §§ 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture; provided, however, that in the event the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 is amended after such date, “TIA” means, to the extent required by any such amendment, the Trust Indenture Act as so amended.
Trustee” means the person named as the “Trustee” in the first paragraph of this instrument until a successor Trustee shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Trustee” shall mean or include each person who is then a Trustee hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.
U.S. Government Obligations” means securities which are direct obligations of, or guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged and which are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank or trust company as custodian with respect to any such U.S. Government Obligation or a specific payment of interest on or principal of any such U.S. Government Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of a depositary receipt, provided that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the U.S. Government Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.
Section 1.2.     Other Definitions.
TERMDEFINED IN SECTION
“Agent Member”2.14.6
“Bankruptcy Law”6.1
“Custodian”6.1
“Event of Default”6.1
“Judgment Currency”10.16
 “mandatory sinking fund payment”11.1
“New York Banking Day”10.16
“Notice Agent”2.4
“optional sinking fund payment”11.1
“Paying Agent”2.4
“Registrar”2.4
“Required Currency”10.16
“Specified Courts”10.10
“successor person”5.1
4

Section 1.3.     Incorporation by Reference of Trust Indenture Act.
Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the provision is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:
Commission” means the SEC.
indenture securities” means the Securities.
indenture security holder” means a Holder.
indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.
indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.
obligor” on the indenture securities means the Company and any successor obligor upon the Securities.
All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined by TIA reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule under the TIA and not otherwise defined herein are used herein as so defined.
Section 1.4.     Rules of Construction.
Unless the context otherwise requires:
(a)a term has the meaning assigned to it;
(b)an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;
(c)or” is not exclusive;
(d)words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;
(e)provisions apply to successive events and transactions;
(f)in the computation of periods of time from a specified date to a later specified date, the word “from” means “from and including,” and the words “to” and “until” each mean “to but excluding”; and
(g)the phrase “in writing” as used herein shall be deemed to include PDFs, e-mails and other electronic means of transmission, unless otherwise indicated.
5

ARTICLE II.
THE SECURITIES
Section 2.1.     Issuable in Series.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officer’s Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officer’s Certificate or supplemental indenture detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, maturity date, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, provided that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.
Section 2.2.     Establishment of Terms of Series of Securities.
At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2.1 and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2.2 through 2.2.23) by or pursuant to a Board Resolution, and set forth or determined in the manner provided in a Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate:
2.2.1.the title (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series) and ranking (including the terms of any subordination provisions) of the Series;
2.2.2.the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;
2.2.3.any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6);
2.2.4.the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;
2.2.5.the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall
6

accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any interest payment date;
2.2.6.the place or places where the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series shall be payable, where the Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered, and the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;
2.2.7.if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;
2.2.8.the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;
2.2.9.the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;
2.2.10.if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;
2.2.11.the forms of the Securities of the Series and whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities;
2.2.12.if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;
2.2.13.the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, and if such currency of denomination is a composite currency, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;
2.2.14.the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of and interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be made;
2.2.15.if payments of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;
2.2.16.the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of or interest, if any, on the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by
7

reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;
2.2.17.the provisions, if any, relating to any security provided for the Securities of the Series;
2.2.18.any addition to, deletion of or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;
2.2.19.any addition to, deletion of or change in the covenants applicable to Securities of the Series;
2.2.20.any Depositaries, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;
2.2.21.the provisions, if any, relating to conversion or exchange of any Securities of such Series, including if applicable, the conversion or exchange price, the conversion or exchange period, provisions as to whether conversion or exchange will be mandatory, at the option of the Holders thereof or at the option of the Company, the events requiring an adjustment of the conversion price or exchange price and provisions affecting conversion or exchange if such Series of Securities are redeemed;
2.2.22.any other terms of the Series (which may supplement, modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series), including any terms that may be required under applicable law or regulations or advisable in connection with the marketing of Securities of that Series; and
2.2.23.whether any of the Company’s direct or indirect Subsidiaries will guarantee the Securities of that Series, including the terms of subordination, if any, of such guarantees.
All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate referred to above.
Section 2.3.     Execution and Authentication.
An Officer shall sign the Securities for the Company by manual, facsimile or electronic signature.
If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.
8

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture.
The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.
The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.
Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.2) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officer’s Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officer’s Certificate complying with Sections 10.4 and 10.5, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Sections 10.4 and 10.5.
The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of such Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised by counsel, determines that such action may not be taken lawfully; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith determines that such action may expose the Trustee to personal liability.
The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.
Section 2.4.     Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent.
The Company shall maintain, with respect to each Series of Securities, at the place or places specified with respect to such Series pursuant to Section 2.2, an office or agency where Securities of such Series may be presented or surrendered for payment (“Paying Agent”), where Securities of such Series may be surrendered for registration of transfer or exchange (“Registrar”) and where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of such Series and this Indenture may be delivered (“Notice Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register with respect to each Series of Securities and to their transfer and exchange. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the name and address, and any change in the name or address, of each Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the name and address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the
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Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands; provided, however, that any appointment of the Trustee as the Notice Agent shall exclude the appointment of the Trustee or any office of the Trustee as an agent to receive the service of legal process on the Company.
The Company may also from time to time designate one or more co-registrars, additional paying agents or additional notice agents and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligations to maintain a Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent in each place so specified pursuant to Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the name or address of any such co-registrar, additional paying agent or additional notice agent. The term “Registrar” includes any co-registrar; the term “Paying Agent” includes any additional paying agent; and the term “Notice Agent” includes any additional notice agent. The Company or any of its Affiliates may serve as Registrar or Paying Agent.
The Company hereby appoints the Trustee the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Notice Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Notice Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued. The rights, powers, duties, obligations and actions of each Agent under this Indenture are several and not joint or joint and several, and the Agents shall only be obliged to perform those duties expressly set out in this Indenture and shall have no implied duties.
Section 2.5.     Paying Agent to Hold Money in Trust.
The Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that the Paying Agent will hold in trust, for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee, all money held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of or interest on the Series of Securities and will notify the Trustee in writing of any default by the Company in making any such payment. While any such default continues, the Trustee may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to pay all money held by it to the Trustee. Upon payment over to the Trustee, the Paying Agent (if other than the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company) shall have no further liability for the money. If the Company or a Subsidiary of the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate and hold in a separate trust fund for the benefit of Holders of any Series of Securities all money held by it as Paying Agent. Upon any bankruptcy, reorganization or similar proceeding with respect to the Company, the Trustee shall serve as Paying Agent for the Securities. For the avoidance of doubt, a Paying Agent and the Trustee shall be held harmless and have no liability with respect to payments or disbursements (including to the Holders) until they have confirmed receipt of funds sufficient to make the relevant payment. No money held by an Agent needs to be segregated except as is required by law.
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Section 2.6.     Holder Lists.
If it is serving as Registrar, the Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities and shall otherwise comply with TIA § 312(a). If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee at least ten days before each interest payment date and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing a list, in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of Holders of each Series of Securities.
Every Holder, by receiving and holding Securities, agrees with the Company and the Trustee that neither the Company nor the Trustee or any agent of either of them shall be held accountable by reason of the disclosure of any such information as to the names and addresses of the Holders in accordance with TIA § 312, regardless of the source from which such information was derived, and that the Trustee shall not be held accountable by reason of mailing any material pursuant to a request made under TIA § 312(b).
Section 2.7.     Transfer and Exchange.
Where Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar or a co-registrar with a request to register a transfer or to exchange them for an equal principal amount of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall register the transfer or make the exchange if its requirements for such transactions are met. To permit registrations of transfers and exchanges, the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request. No service charge shall be made for any registration of transfer or exchange (except as otherwise expressly permitted herein), but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable in connection therewith (other than any such transfer tax or similar governmental charge payable upon exchanges pursuant to Sections 2.11, 3.6 or 9.6).
Neither the Company nor the Registrar shall be required (a) to issue, register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series for the period beginning at the opening of business 15 days immediately preceding the sending of a notice of redemption of Securities of that Series selected for redemption and ending at the close of business on the day such notice is sent, (b) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series selected, called or being called for redemption as a whole or the portion being redeemed of any such Securities selected, called or being called for redemption in part or (c) to register the transfer of or exchange Securities of any Series between a record date and payment date for such Series of Securities.
Section 2.8.     Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost and Stolen Securities.
If any mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver in exchange therefor a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
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If there shall be delivered to the Company and the Trustee (i) evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of any Security and (ii) such security or indemnity bond as may be required by each of them to hold itself and any of its agents harmless, then, in the absence of notice to the Company or the Trustee that such Security has been acquired by a bona fide purchaser, the Company shall execute and upon receipt of a Company Order the Trustee shall authenticate and make available for delivery, in lieu of any such destroyed, lost or stolen Security, a new Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding.
In case any such mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security has become or is about to become due and payable, the Company in its discretion may, instead of issuing a new Security, pay such Security.
Upon the issuance of any new Security under this Section, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith.
Every new Security of any Series issued pursuant to this Section in lieu of any destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall constitute an original additional contractual obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.
The provisions of this Section are exclusive and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) all other rights and remedies with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities.
Section 2.9.     Outstanding Securities.
The Securities outstanding at any time are all the Securities authenticated by the Trustee except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation, those reductions in the interest on a Global Security effected by the Trustee in accordance with the provisions hereof and those described in this Section as not outstanding.
If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8, it ceases to be outstanding until the Trustee receives proof satisfactory to it that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser.
If the Paying Agent (other than the Company, a Subsidiary of the Company or an Affiliate of the Company) holds on the Maturity of Securities of a Series money sufficient to pay such Securities payable on that date, then on and after that date such Securities of the Series cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.
The Company may purchase or otherwise acquire the Securities, whether by open market purchases, negotiated transactions or otherwise. A Security does not cease to be
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outstanding because the Company or an Affiliate of the Company holds the Security (but see Section 2.10 below).
In determining whether the Holders of the requisite principal amount of outstanding Securities have given any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver hereunder, the principal amount of a Discount Security that shall be deemed to be outstanding for such purposes shall be the amount of the principal thereof that would be due and payable as of the date of such determination upon a declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2.
Section 2.10.     Treasury Securities.
In determining whether the Holders of the required principal amount of Securities of a Series have concurred in any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver, Securities of a Series owned by the Company or any Affiliate of the Company shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent or waiver only Securities of a Series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows are so owned shall be so disregarded.
Section 2.11.     Temporary Securities.
Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and the Trustee shall authenticate temporary Securities upon a Company Order. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of definitive Securities but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and the Trustee upon receipt of a Company Order shall authenticate definitive Securities of the same Series and date of maturity in exchange for temporary Securities. Until so exchanged, temporary securities shall have the same rights under this Indenture as the definitive Securities.
Section 2.12.     Cancellation.
The Company at any time may deliver Securities to the Trustee for cancellation. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for registration of transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee shall cancel all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment, replacement or cancellation and shall destroy such canceled Securities (subject to the record retention requirements of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) and deliver a certificate of such cancellation to the Company upon written request of the Company. The Company may not issue new Securities to replace Securities that it has paid or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.
Section 2.13.     Defaulted Interest.